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Violence institutionnelle ou politique

Veille scientifique Chaire SIMS

Violence institutionnelle ou politique

Définition : La violence politique réfère à la législation et au cadre de loi qui structure les décisions politiques. Par exemple, ce type de violence peut résulter, par exemple, par l’absence de législation pour protéger les jeunes athlètes ou par l’absence de système de plainte véritablement indépendant des organisations sportives, le tout géré par l’État (Parent et El Hlimi, 2013). 

La violence institutionnelle est définie par les pratiques quotidiennes des organisations et des institutions ayant un impact néfaste sur les membres des groupes subordonnés, et est qualifiée de « violence discriminatoire » (Kendall, 1997, p.306). Dans le contexte sportif, la violence institutionnelle fait référence à toutes formes de violence qui proviennent, sont perpétrées ou tolérées par les organisations sportives (ex. : fédérations, associations, clubs sportifs). Par exemple, cela peut faire référence à la corruption ou à l’exploitation financière des jeunes athlètes (travail sportif des enfants athlètes d’élite, trafic d’enfants pour le sport, etc.) ou à la différence de salaire entre les hommes et les femmes dans le milieu sportif. Ainsi, la violence économique est incluse dans la violence institutionnelle.

Décembre 2023 à mars 2024

Background: Video games are an understudied sport featuring social interactions both similar and dissimilar to those in offline sports. While anonymity in online video games could create a space where minoritized groups experience more equitable treatment, offline social inequalities are translated into online video game interactions. Methods: Drawing on 20 semistructured interviews and 2,694 survey responses from self-identified queer men, I build a framework for understanding gender, sexuality, and racial/ethnic harassment in online video games. Results: I argue that nerd masculinity is a protest masculinity that uses symbolic harassment to reframe masculine hierarchy online and enforce hegemonic nerd masculinity. With this study, I illustrate the prevalence of symbolic harassment and the channels it may follow to become direct harassment.

Background: Policy can serve as a form of institutionalised stigma, working to create and maintain discrimination against groups of people. Some Canadian National Sport Organizations (NSOs) have developed policies that address transgender inclusion within sport. However, where these policies exist, they vary in their approaches to inclusion of transgender persons. Objective: This article examines how Canadian sport policies prohibit and/or police transgender persons’ participation in sport. In 2019, the publicly available policies of 53 NSOs were reviewed to determine the presence and content of so-called transgender inclusion policies, as well as policies related to equity, discrimination and harassment. Results: At the time of the study, only 17 of the 53 NSOs had policies specifically related to transgender inclusion. In this study, we review these policies to understand the varying approaches to transgender inclusion in Canadian NSOs. We classified the NSOs into three broad categories: inclusive (n = 11), problematic (n = 1) and prejudicial (n = 5), in relation to naming, disclosure and medical specifications. Using Judith Butler’s concept of precarity, we demonstrate that participation in sport is a precarious choice for transgender athletes, as most NSO policies lacked clear guidance on inclusion and there were next to no policy statements on gender non-conforming people. Conclusion: The development of inclusive policy within sport should be proactive, actionable, consistent with best practices and must include meaningful conversations with transgender and gender non-conforming athletes, coaches and officials.

Background: Athletes’ participation in sports governance gains momentum at multiple levels and challenges the long-prevailing power relations in organised sport. At the same time, the sport-specific discourse on good governance extends to the field of anti-doping, following low levels of testing effectiveness, untransparent decision-making and ethical misconduct in leading anti-doping authorities. Methods: Adopting a case-oriented comparative approach between the National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs) of Germany (NADA) and Poland (POLADA), two consecutive data collection steps were applied in mixed-methods design to assess and compare the status quo, and to discuss the future development of athletes’ participation in anti-doping through the lens of democratic processes in good governance research. Results: First, document analysis showed important similarities and differences between the organisations’ approaches to athletes’ participation. Overall, NADA implements a more democratic and transparent approach than POLADA. Second, expert interviews revealed three key issues in relation to democratic forms of athletes’ participation in the two NADOs: athletes’ and their representatives’ (limited) personal resources and engagement (individual); an adequate degree of codification and institutionalisation of athletes’ representation on NADOs’ internal bodies (organisational); and NADOs’ operational (in-)dependence (political/systemic). Conclusion: Researchers and practitioners are recommended to further examine how NADOs’ control functions over athletes and athletes’ participation in their decision-making can be adequately balanced as part of aspirations to foster democratic governance in these organisations.

Background: This paper explores how school-built factors and organisational dimensions contribute to bodily exposure, degrading treatment and bullying in school changing rooms. Methods: The findings in this study stem from an ethnographic research project exploring the relations between school bullying and the institutional context of schooling. The project focuses on the perspectives of teachers and pupils from pre-school class up to grade eight (i.e. approx. ages 5–15). In this particular study, we focus on participant observations and semi-structured interviews conducted at three elementary schools and one lower secondary school in Sweden. Analysis of the data was guided by constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, Citation2014). Results: Findings reveal how the changing room was a vulnerable and unsafe space associated with an ever-present fear of experiencing bodily exposure, degrading treatment, and bullying. Our findings illuminate how social-ecological elements such as the physical design of the space and organisational factors such as staffing and scheduling can both increase and decrease the risk of experiencing bodily exposure, degrading treatment, and bullying in the changing room. Conclusion: This demonstrates that much more consideration needs to be given to how social interactions and experiences within school changing rooms are influenced by school-built factors and the ways in which they are organised within the different social-ecological systems beyond the microsystem setting.

Background: Despite publicised cases of abuse impacting those above the age of 18, little research attention has been paid to the safeguarding of adults. Objective: The present study is informed by the recommendations of the Duty of Care in Sport Review, aiming to inform the development of a case data collection tool. Methods: Semi-structured online interviews were conducted with 11 key stakeholders. Results: Inductive thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several challenges to collecting adult safeguarding case data in sport which were categorised into three domains: conceptualising cases, managing cases, and recording cases. Developing an effective case management process for adults will require a broader, and shared, understanding of the conceptualisation of adult safeguarding cases, including that vulnerability is not solely determined by personal characteristics, but is affected by the behaviour of perpetrators and fluctuates as circumstances change. Conclusion: Top-down support is necessary to ensure greater consistency in the reporting of valuable adult case data. With clear expectations, regarding what an adult safeguarding case is, what data should be collected, how it should be collected and why, as well as adequate resources, sports of all levels will be in a better position to protect adults from abuse or harm. A clearer roadmap for the management of adult safeguarding concerns in sport is offered.

Background: Sport governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, have recommended youth sport organizations develop policies, procedures, and/or ethical guidelines to prevent and respond to sexual harassment and abuse (SHA) experienced by young athletes. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated SHA policies or procedures in U.S. youth sport programs. Objective: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine U.S. youth sport programs’ policies regarding SHA. Methods: The results are based on a cross-sectional survey completed by youth sport coaches (n = 200) from various organizations (e.g., public recreation organizations, private nonprofit organizations, and interscholastic sports). Results: Findings suggest that most organizations have several SHA policies, such as education and training requirements, written policies and codes of conduct regarding coach-athlete sexual relationships, and formal complaint and disclosure procedures for investigating SHA. A bivariate analysis suggests that the presence of several SHA policies was associated with an increased number of self-reported SHA incidents. Moreover, youth sport programs located in urban areas had a greater extent of SHA policies compared to those located in suburban or rural areas. Conclusion: These results are discussed with respect to the potential relationships between the presence of policies and increased cases of SHA. Also, we discussed advocating for equitable resources among youth sport programs regardless of geographic and/or demographic factors. Future research should identify social and cultural barriers that inhibit the successful implementation of SHA policies. While developing and implementing SHA policies is a step in the right direction, it may not be used as the only means to address this complex, systematic, and structural issue.

Objective: The present research aimed to conduct a systematic study on violence and aggression in the context of Iranian sports and perform a meta-analysis to investigate the association between the media and violence and aggression in sports. Methods: The research encompassed all relevant studies available in scientific databases within Iran (such as Magiran, Seyed, Civilica, Normagz, Humane resource study, and police publications), as well as dissertations from the information and scientific documents database. The selected timeframe for this analysis covered the years 2001 to 2018 in the Iranian context. Through this process, 209 studies related to the subject were identified, out of which 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis based on the research protocol investigating the relationship between media and violence and aggression in sports. Data analysis was performed using SPSS25 and CMA2 software. Results: The results showed several variables played prominent roles in the researches on violence and aggression in sports, including media performance, referees’ performance, stadium amenities, law enforcement and security factors, external and internal stadium environment, coach’s behavior, social control, family influence, education, socio-economic factors, substance abuse, players’ behavior, influence of friends, managerial aspects, and cultural and political factors. Inferential statistics indicated effect size for the relationship between media and violence and aggression, under the fixed model, was determined to be 0.259, and under the random model, it was 0.306, both of which were statistically significant. Consequently, based on the findings from the meta-analysis, a significant direct relationship between media and violence and aggression in sports was established.

Background: The use of performance enhancing substances and methods (known as “doping”) in sport is an intractable issue, with current anti-doping strategies predominantly focused on the personal responsibility and strict liability of individual athletes. This is despite an emerging understanding that athletes exist as part of a broader complex sports system that includes governance, policymakers, media, sponsors, clubs, team members, and athlete support staff, to name a few. As such, there is a need to examine the broader systemic factors that influence doping in sport. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise the factors contributing to doping and doping behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs and the extent to which this knowledge extends beyond the athlete to consider broader sports systems. The review followed PRISMA guidelines with risk of bias and study quality assessed by the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, and identified contributory factors synthesised and mapped onto a systems thinking-based framework. Overall, the included studies were determined to be of high quality. Results: Support personnel, the coach, and the coach-athlete relationship represent key influences on the athletes’ decisions to dope. From the evidence presented, doping is an emergent property of sport systems and represents a complex systemic problem that will require whole-of-system interventions. Conclusion: The implications for this and the focus of future research are discussed.

Background: Compared to their non-disabled peers, athletes with disabilities are at an increased risk of interpersonal violence in sport. Athletes with intellectual disabilities specifically may face compounded risk due to impaired communication and social challenges. Despite the inherent risk of interpersonal violence in athletes with intellectual disabilities, there is a paucity of literature focused on safeguarding strategies in this population, and no global consensus prevention guidelines exist. Objective: The goal of this review was to synthesize the literature on interpersonal violence in athletes with intellectual disabilities and propose an evidence-informed safeguarding framework. Conclusion: Future research and practice should emphasize tailored training on appropriate athlete-protection strategies and ways to recognize and respond to suspicions of abuse in this population. Given the benefits of sports participation for persons with intellectual disabilities, implementation of fit-for-purpose safeguarding strategies would help address any elevated risk of interpersonal violence. Formal monitoring and evaluation of these initiatives can help minimize interpersonal violence.

Background: Reporting systems constitute an essential part of today’s safe sport initiatives across the world. Objective: Informed by literature on reporting wrongdoings in organisational contexts and a political sociology approach to policy instrumentation, this article examines how abuse reporting systems are utilised in youth high-performance sport environments. Methods and results: Drawing from 51 interviews with both user and provider groups of South Korea’s reporting facilities, the results offer three main uses of the country’s safe sport reporting mechanisms: (1) ‘good use’ that relies on their communicative capacity to signal changing organisational culture; (2) ‘non-use’ that derives not only from the fear of reprisals, but from more subtle relational and situational concerns, such as teams’ dissolution; and (3) ‘misuse’ of the systems as a tool to advance individual agendas as opposed to protecting victims. Conclusion: The findings of this study not only provide evidence for both positive and perverse effects of safe sport reporting facilities per se, but also illuminate the importance of social and institutional conditions that can both enable and constrain this newly implemented policy measure for athlete safeguarding.

 Background: Although athletes seem to hold uniform views towards non-dopers, their perception of dopers is more nuanced, reflecting positive and negative attributes. Research also indicates that rarely a single factor can explain doping, but a host of reasons that intertwine. A holistic understanding of how values play a role in decisions in anti-doping and the elements that influence athletes’ doping vulnerability is timely and warranted. Methods: We recruited elite athletes from 13 countries representing 27 sports at a national or international level (N = 60) to participate as part of a larger research project. Data were collected via focus group interviews focusing on values, value priorities and perceptions about the role of values in doping as a phenomenon and in dopers’ actions. Data were analysed using iterative thematic analysis. Results: Three themes were identified: (1) athletes’ personal stance on doping, (2) dopers in the eyes of the anti-doping-compliant athletes, and (3) doping vulnerability is a balance. Athletes in this study strongly opposed doping but showed empathy and understanding toward athletes who doped under certain circumstances. Furthermore, athletes believed that “clean” and “doping” athletes are not always distinguished by the values they hold, leading to the realisation that all athletes can be vulnerable to doping at some point. This vulnerability is a balance between risks and protective factors in a complex interaction between environmental, personal, and situational influences. Each element (e.g., values, environment) can be a motivator or a barrier. Consequently, doping vulnerability is highly idiosyncratic and dynamic. Conclusion: If doping is not due to a lack of moral values but the consequences of combined risk factors that override the guiding function of values, then doping can happen to anyone, “good” athletes included. Developers and facilitators of anti-doping education programmes are advised to embrace this important aspect. The results also contribute to developing the doping vulnerability concept as a balance between risks and protective factors and draw attention to the clean athlete vulnerability, which is rooted in the combination of strategic performance enhancement via non-prohibited means, their exposure to anti-doping requirements and the constant high level of suspicion that surrounds them.

        Background: The significance of anti-doping education in competitive sports is paramount, necessitating athletes and coaches to possess an in-depth understanding of doping prevention strategies. However, information on the Chinese context is limited, prompting a comprehensive examination of the nation’s anti-doping education system. Objective: This study explored the experiences of 45 stakeholders involved in Chinese anti-doping education via in-depth interviews and provides a critical analysis of the system’s target audience, delivery methods, timing, and content. Results: The study developed an anti-doping education policy implementation model, assessing its efficacy within the Chinese context. The model posits that while China has made significant strides in addressing key factors of anti-doping education, improvements are still required. Notably, broadening the selection of target groups, enhancing awareness-raising efforts, and establishing comprehensive plans for anti-doping education throughout an athlete’s lifecycle are crucial. Additionally, clear timelines for these initiatives and an optimised anti-doping policy evaluation process, involving increased collaboration with academic institutions and scholar participation in research, are recommended. Conclusion: These findings underline the importance of a continuous and context-specific refinement of China’s anti-doping education strategies, aligning with the evolving needs of stakeholders and the broader demands of the sporting ecosystem.

Septembre 2023 à novembre 2023

Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to explore: (a) What stories do the Street Soccer players draw upon to construct meaning around their experiences of trauma, social exclusion, and homelessness? and (b) What stories are linked to the subjective sport programming experience and resulting future orientations? Methods: A longitudinal narrative approach was adopted with semi-structured interviews conducted with players from Scotland and the United States (n = 16, 7 female, 9 male, M age = 27.5) across three time points. Interviews were also conducted with significant others (n = 13) at time point three. All data were analyzed using thematic narrative analysis and represented in creative non-fiction approaches through three composite narratives. Results: These narratives depicted visceral accounts of complex and developmental trauma, along with consequential experiences that unfolded before, during, and after the Homeless World Cup. While both preparing for and attending the event, players recalled concurrent feelings of anxiety and pride which manifested in various resilient and maladaptive coping behaviors. As the stories progressed, players battled a post event crash by engaging in support seeking and/or self-destructive behaviors before positive implications of the Homeless World Cup materialized. Conclusions: Through creative narrative approaches, this study presents novel and engaging accounts of players’ experiences before, during, and after the event. We also identify potential safeguarding concerns that can be addressed through trauma-informed practices.

Background: Violence and maltreatment in sport threaten athlete rights and undermine sport’s potential contribution to positive social development. This problem remains prevalent in organised sport and limits sport’s potential social contribution. In response, numerous European and international actors have pursued activities to address this serious issue. In particular, for more than two decades, the Council of Europe (CoE) has played an active role in promoting and supporting safeguarding policy in sport. However, though extensive time and resources have been invested in these actions, their extent and impact remain unclear. Objective: Therefore, using the Council of Europe’s Start to Talk initiative as a case, we aim to analyse the inputs, activities, and policy outcomes of their work around safeguarding policy in sport. In turn, this will allow us to identify successes, challenges and future directions for European policy activities. Results: We rely on document analysis and more than 20 semi-structured qualitative interviews with national and international experts to generate our results. Based on this, we find that the CoE has helped politically legitimise action on this topic and has helped generate engagement with policymakers and the public. However, a broader lack of policy monitoring, especially at the systems and target population levels, restricts further progress and development.

Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain a nuanced, in-depth insight into sport psychology consultants’ (SPCs’) experiences of working with cases of maltreatment in sport, and their practice recommendations to address this behavior. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five HCPC-registered SPCs in the UK. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Four group experiential themes emerged, centered around the participants searching for meaning, fighting the system, ingrained acceptance, and tackling the problem of maltreatment in sport. Specifically, the participants referred to how the sporting context influenced their understanding of maltreatment. They also discussed the inherent difficulties with reporting this behavior, and a lack of support in this process, whilst also alluding to how sporting institutions normalized abusive practices in pursuit of performance outcomes. To address the issue of maltreatment in sports, the participants discussed a variety of recommendations including organizations being accountable, the need for organizations to be more representative, and for SPCs to work with contextual intelligence. Conclusions: The findings from the present study provide important implications for sporting organizations, SPCs, and the professional bodies who support practitioners around the need to further understand maltreatment in sport, and to tackle this issue.

Background: In the context of scandals and growing public pressure, international sport organisations have undertaken a number of governance reforms. A landmark measure has been the implementation of confidential reporting mechanisms to detect and address internal wrongdoings such as bribery, match-fixing, abuse or doping. Objectives: This paper seeks to understand the performance of such mechanisms, through a multiple case study approach comparing the organisational intentions, the means invested, and the perceived results. Policy reviews and a series of interviews with international sport organisation representatives were conducted. Results: The data analysis generates three main findings: the quest for external legitimacy is a key driver behind the reforms; minimum resources are invested in the processes; the perceived impacts are limited. Sport organisations may adopt formal governance reforms that remain disconnected from the daily practices. Finally, the practical and conceptual implications are presented and discussed.

Background: The public is increasingly questioning equestrianism’s social license to operate. While the focus historically centered on horseracing, increased scrutiny is now being placed on how dressage, showjumping, and eventing are addressing equine management and welfare concerns. Methods: Nominated equestrian federation and equestrian organization experts (n = 104) directly involved in international and/or national-level horse sports took part in a four-stage, iterative Delphi to obtain consensus on what factors should be considered essential to manage sporthorse health and welfare. Results: Five core domains were agreed as essential: training management, competition management, young horse management, health status and veterinary management, and the horse–human relationship. Two further domains: stable and environmental management, and welfare assessment were rated as important but not essential, as most respondents felt that these areas were already managed well. Participants felt increased education and guidance combined with further policy development and regulation are needed to support stakeholders to optimize sporthorse management. An appetite to engage with research to generate evidence that promotes sporthorse welfare was evident. Conclusion: The development of a sporthorse welfare charter and evidence-based guidelines to inform the management and monitoring of sporthorses’ health and welfare are recommended to provide horses with a good life and to safeguard the future of equestrian sports.

Mai 2023 à août 2023

In January of 2018, after decades of sexual abuse of hundreds of athletes under his medical care, USA Gymnastics team doctor Larry Nassar faced 156 of the women he victimized when they testified at his sentencing hearing and detailed the abuse. In the wake of the Nassar verdict, gymnastics and other youth sports organizations have come under fire for abusive practices that victimize young athletes. Scholars have recently argued for an approach to understanding sexual violence as an organizational, rather than individual, phenomenon. The power organizations possess to inflict violence on their members requires an understanding of the increased role of organizations in our decision-making and shaping our values and desires. Through an analysis of testimonies submitted by women who were victimized by Nassar as children, I argue that violence was intentionally deployed as an organizing strategy by USA Gymnastics. Abusive organizational practices traumatized girls, leading them to recalibrate their expectations for what was normal and acceptable, ultimately facilitating their abuse. I propose “high-stakes organizations” as contexts particularly vulnerable to violent organizational practices. I argue, in these high-stakes organizations, trauma is likely to be deployed as a strategy for organizational commitment, further fostering precarity in modern organizations.

Décembre 2022 à avril 2023

Objective: The use of performance and image enhancement drugs (PIEDs) in recreational sport is a common practice and there is a need to develop preventive interventions. The study’s aim was to investigate the acceptability and usability of an online e-learning course and an information app designed to support PIED prevention training activities in professionals working with recreational athletes. Design: A mixed-method design was used with 51 professionals from Finland, Greece, and Lithuania evaluating the e-learning course through surveys and interviews. Similarly, 19 Greek professionals evaluated the information app. Main outcome measures: Participants completed surveys and participated in semi-structured interviews measuring both tool’s acceptability, usability, and implementation. Results: Participants commented positively on the value and content of both tools. They reported increased knowledge on PIEDs risks and understanding of motives for PIED use. Also, their competence and confidence in interacting with clients and assisting them to quit increased. The e-learning course was perceived as compatible with existing practices. The main barrier was a lack of time in interacting with clients. Conclusion: The study provides valuable information on the acceptability and usability of two educational approaches against doping. Anti-doping educational authorities could integrate these tools into their activities to educate fitness instructors about doping.

After two years of discussions and revisions, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code on June 16, 2020. Among the most significant additions to this iteration of the Code was the inclusion of new categories of athletes subject to differential treatment by WADA, including the “protected person” category. In this paper, we examine the recent case of figure skater Kamila Valeryevna Valieva, the first athlete given differential treatment due to her being categorized as a “protected person.” We apply a relational justice framework to the case to provide a nuanced, descriptive analysis of the case generally, and the application of the “protected person” category in particular.We first describe details of the athlete, her performances and anti-doping rule violation, and the “protected person” category, to provide context. We then describe and analyze the relations between several institutional actors, principally WADA and the International Court for the Arbitration of Sport (CAS), the athlete and her team, and other figure skating athletes at the Beijing Winter Olympic Games. To do so, we use two concepts of justice, conservative and ideal, and their component parts, entitlement, desert, and need.Our description and analyses demonstrate that (1) WADA’s notions of justice are essentially conservative, while CAS acted toward more ideal notions, creating a fundamental disagreement in what was owed and to whom. We show (2) that CAS’ decision may have nonetheless caused harm to the athlete, raising questions about the efficacy and capability of the “protected person” category. Finally, (3) our analyses show the influence that notions of justice necessarily have these actors shape each other, thus change the sporting institutions and activities themselves.

In response to numerous highly publicized cases of athlete maltreatment, sport organizations have developed prevention and intervention strategies under the umbrella term of Safe Sport; however, confusion exists about what it does and does not encompass. To better understand what Safe Sport encompasses, this study sought to develop a conceptual framework of Safe Sport, informed by the perspectives of various stakeholders in sport. Using a social constructivist grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty-one participants, including athletes, coaches, sport administrators, and researchers. The results are interpreted to suggest that participants’ understanding of Safe Sport are informed by three overarching themes: environmental and physical safety, relational safety, and optimising sport, all of which are viewed as continuously evolving relative to the ever-changing context of sport and broader society. Recommendations are made to optimise sport experiences and thus prevent physical and psychological harms through a safeguarding approach that prioritizes the promotion of human rights.

The persistence of integrity problems in national sports organizations (NSOS) globally suggests that current approaches (e.g., good governance, piece meal legislation and policy) to curbing them are ineffective. Scholars have argued for a broad strategy to enhance integrity, deter unethical behavior, and prevent integrity system failures. theoretical gap exists in conceptualizing a national sport integrity system (NSIS). Drawing from accountability, integrity systems, integrity management, and sport integrity literatures a holistic and configurational framework of the actors, and the internal and external components of a NSIS was conceptualized. A NSIS is comprised of institutions, policies, practices, agencies, and actors responsible for promoting and safeguarding the integrity of an NSO. A NSIS was designed for both federated and unitary sport governance models that onsists of three interconnected components: the institutions that serve as the operational arm of the system, the accountability arm that is responsible for guarding integrity, and actors who manage the operational systems and accountability mechanisms. An NSO collaboratively coordinates and assists with capacity building to suitably delivery the system components across the respective levels of governance. The paper concludes with consideration of how the system may be used in practice, challenges for adoption, and directions for future research.

In this article, we examine scholarly analyses of justice and develop a framework that can help assess the claims from the parties in the Russian state-led doping scandal, including, but not limited to, Russian athletes, non-Russian athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and sport governing bodies. The two key components of this justice framework are pluralism and relationality/contextuality. We argue that a justice framework built upon these elements better captures the nature of justice. We conclude that no party in the Russian state-led doping case has exclusive access to justice. Rather, all the parties have legitimate calls for justice against one another. Thus, the administration of justice will fail to serve justice, in its different meanings, for all parties.

The State doping scandal in Russia has highlighted a major discrepancy in the fight against doping in sport: on the one hand, the signatories of the Word Anti-Doping Code (federations, NADO’s, etc.) are subject to a very strict regime and incur serious sanctions, while on the other hand, States, when they massively violate the rules, do not risk very important consequences in international law. For example, high ranking officials as well as the Russian state apparatus have not been affected with a few exceptions such as the Moscow antidoping laboratory. The aim of this opinion paper is to present a reflection on the different avenues that could be envisaged to make governments more accountable, especially as work is underway on the topic. The development of a true government accountability regime would allow the system to be more balanced.

In recent years, an increasing number of cases of sexual violence (SV) in organized sports have received worldwide attention. To counteract the emergence of SV, various preventive measures have been developed and implemented. However, the effectiveness of these preventive measures has not been adequately tested. To close this gap, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a workshop intervention that was conducted within the context of organized sports in Germany. The one-day workshop intervention was conducted with 137 stakeholders in organized sports (coaches, athletes, board members, and parents). The intervention was evaluated by measuring the short-term (immediately before and after the workshop) and long-term effects (six months after the workshop). The analyses showed positive short-term (such as on attitudes toward SV and the intention to act against SV) and positive long-term effects (on knowledge about SV and a culture of prevention in the sports club and club behavior) of the workshop. The workshop was effective in the short term and the long term regarding the most relevant indicators (i.e., taking measures against SV). Therefore, it can be concluded that more workshops should be held in clubs in order to sensitize stakeholders and foster measures against SV in sports. socsci12040244

In 2011, the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine released their first position paper on Abuse, Harassment, and Bullying in Sport. Since this time, there have been significant advancements within the global sport landscape, including the emergence of regulatory bodies and initiatives aimed at prioritizing athletes’ health and well-being. While the shift to a more proactive approach for safeguarding athletes is evident and promising, athletes continue to be affected by cases of maltreatment. To advance safe sport, it is critical that all supporters of safe and healthy performance are aware of their roles and responsibilities for preventing and addressing maltreatment, including the Canadian sport medicine community. In this updated position statement, recent advancements in research on issues of maltreatment are summarized and specific recommendations are provided on how the medical community can contribute to appropriately identifying, treating, and preventing harm in sport, as well as their role in advocating for the health and well-being of athletes in their care.

2022 – Janvier à novembre

Child sexual abuse is a complex issue that can take place in different contexts. Sports settings have specific features which pose increased risk for sexual abuse to occur. Recently, a country-specific roadmap for effective child safeguarding in sport was launched. Considering the need to achieve a comprehensive picture of violence against children in sports settings in Portugal, we analyzed the perceptions of the sports community in Portugal regarding child sexual abuse, its victims and perpetrators, and the specific risk factors in sports settings, as studies about this specific topic are scarce at the national level. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted using an online questionnaire with open-ended questions. Three hundred participants, i.e., sports managers, coaches, and athletes over 18 years of age (M = 33.13; SD = 13.062), of which 55.7% were female, answered. A thematic analysis of these data was conducted using NVivo software. Inter-rater agreement was strong for almost all variables. Results indicated that sexual abuse is perceived as being associated with physical and emotional abusive behaviors for which there is no consent from the victim, in a relationship that is guided by a relationship with power imbalances. Victims were mainly perceived as being female children, and perpetrators as adult males in a powerful position over the victim. As to possible signs of sexual abuse victimization, results showed that the participants identify behaviors, such as isolation, and physical evidence, such as marks and injuries. Risk factors specific to sports setting included the physical contact involved in many modalities, as well as the close and trustful relationship established between coach and athlete. Results are in line with previous studies showing that coaches, athletes, and sports managers share a common understanding of sexual abuse, although not always accurate. These results shed light on important practical and policy implications relevant to country-specific sport policies for effectively safeguarding children.

The hematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) aims to reveal blood doping indirectly by looking at selected biomarkers of doping over time. For Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs), the ABP is a vital tool in the fight against doping in sports through improved target testing and analysis, investigations, deterrence, and as indirect evidence for use of prohibited methods or substances. The physiological characteristics of sport disciplines is an important risk factor in the overall risk assessment and when implementing the hematological module. Sharing of experiences with implementing the hematological ABP between ADOs is key to further strengthen and extend its use. In this study, we present 10 years of experience with the hematological ABP program from the perspectives of a National ADO with special attention to sport disciplines’ physiological characteristics as a potential risk factor for blood doping. Not surprisingly, most samples were collected in sport disciplines where the aerobic capacity is vital for performance. The study highlights strengths in Anti-Doping Norway’s testing program but also areas that could be improved. For example, it was shown that samples were collected both in and out of season in a subset of the data material that included three popular sports in Norway (Cross-Country Skiing, Nordic Combined, and Biathlon), however, from the total data material it was clear that athletes were more likely to be tested out of competition and on certain days of the week and times of the day. The use of doping control officers with a flexible time schedule and testing outside an athlete’s 60 min time-slot could help with a more even distribution during the week and day, and thus reduce the predictability of testing. In addition to promoting a discussion on testing strategies, the study can be used as a starting point for other ADOs on how to examine their own testing program.

Objectives: Anti-doping policies represent a group of regulations and procedures that are applied by anti-doping organizations in order to safeguard sports against doping. Evidence implies that, for anti-doping policies to be effective, they need to be endorsed by athletes. Still, there is scarce evidence on the process through which athletes decide to endorse and support anti-doping policies and the role of anti-doping education. The main objective of the study was to empirically examine a behavioural model of active anti-doping policy support. Methods: A self-reported survey with measures of perceived anti-doping legitimacy, social support via expected obedience, perceived trustworthiness and social cognitive variables associated with anti-doping policy support (attitudes, social norms, descriptive norms, perceived behavioural control, regret, and intention) was completed by 1328 competitive athletes in 6 countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Russia, Serbia, UK). Results: Athletes who live in countries with comprehensive (emphasis on individual development and competency with a focus on sport and personal integrity) anti-doping education (ADE) and had received ADE are more supportive of anti-doping policies than athletes from countries with basic education provision anti-doping education (information type education). Furthermore, athletes who received ADE reported significantly higher levels of perceived legitimacy, trustworthiness, and obedience. The results of the SEM revealed that perceptions of legitimacy had both direct and indirect effects on intentions to support anti-doping policies. The effect of perceptions of legitimacy was mediated by social cognitive variables, which demonstrated strong direct effects on intentions. Importantly, the model was invariant across the countries, although mean differences in several constructs emerged. Conclusions: Anti-doping milieu and education impact athletes’ willingness to support anti-doping policies. Interventions targeting legitimacy beliefs and social cognitive variables can be effective in promoting anti-doping policy support in competitive athletes. These interventions should expand beyond anti-doping policy legitimacy and target the specific beliefs (e.g., norms) that are pertinent to policy support in different countries.

The present study investigated the beliefs of athletes and sport stakeholders about whistleblowing against doping in elite competitive sport. Semi-structured interviews took place with five elite athletes, five coaches and five sport directors, from both team and individual sports in Cyprus. Three themes were identified through thematic analysis and reflected issues pertaining to: (a) understanding whistleblowing, (b) facilitating factors and barriers to whistleblowing, and (c) aspects of a reliable and transparent reporting system. Our findings corroborate previous research on whistleblowing against doping in sport, and provide novel insights about the beliefs, attitudes, and concerns of sport stakeholders, such as coaches and sport directors, about the feasibility of existing whistleblowing policies and processes. The policy and practice implications of our findings are discussed.

This paper aims to extend the small but growing body of global literature on the topic of child safeguarding (CSG) policy in sport and related educational contexts. The authors, all male coaches/educators, offer ‘snapshots’ of the moments in time they each realised their previously unquestioned practices must change in light of shifting societal attitudes to CSG and resulting legislation. Our contributions in this space are two-fold. Firstly, we present an autoethnographic methodology that provides a lens into the challenges confronting pedagogues in sport and related educational contexts. Through this methodology, we broaden the scope of discourse that we deem necessary for future CSG policy direction and operationalisation. Secondly, we explore and include an addition to the dominant ‘duality (dichotomy) of danger’ narrative discourse currently reflected in the literature. We do this by proposing a trichotomy of danger framework for leaders and managers of sport and related educational contexts to consider when plotting this future landscape. Research surrounding the possible implications of CSG policy on practice is critical if educators are to navigate the ‘risks’ of their professions. Although there is a small and emerging body of research on this topic, we, the authors seek to redress the scarcity of research observable in the Aotearoa New Zealand context.

Background: Whistleblowing has been recognized as an important deterrent of doping in elite competitive sport. The present study examined athletes’ knowledge of external whistleblowing channels and on how and where to report doping misconduct, perceived trust in different whistleblowing reporting channels, whistleblowing behaviour and athletes’ reasons for reporting (or not) doping misconduct. Methods: Athletes from Greece (n = 480), the Russian Federation (n = 512) and the United Kingdom (n = 171) completed a structured questionnaire on demographics, knowledge of different whistleblowing channels, perceived trust in internal and external whistleblowing channels, past whistleblowing behaviour and reasons for reporting (or not) doping misconduct. Results: The British athletes reported greater awareness of whistleblowing reporting channels (e.g., WADA’s Speak Up and IOC’s reporting platform) than did athletes from Greece (all p < 0.001) and Russia (p = 0.07, and p = 0.012) respectively. However, British athletes reported the lowest scores on knowledge of how and where to report doping misconduct, as compared to athletes from Greece and Russia. The majority of respondents reported greater trust to their coach or a club manager than to other whistleblowing channels, however, responses regarding other channels varied by country. Among athletes who detected doping misconduct 62% of athletes did not report it, while 38% reported it. Reasons for and against reporting doping misconduct reflected in eight themes that were identified using thematic analysis. Conclusion: Athletes showed low awareness of external whistleblowing channels and they predominantly trusted internal whistleblowing channels. Sportspersonship, confidence in resources and personal benefits were among the reasons that facilitate reporting doping misconduct. The present findings indicate that cultural context may play a role in the ways athletes perceive whistleblowing, and this should be taken into account by future interventions to promote the reporting of doping misconduct.

The welfare of participants in sport has historically been treated with lesser significance than other, largely commercial, considerations. In recent years, the wellbeing and treatment of athletes has come under the glare of the media and the public, due to a number of high-profile and deeply troubling claims of mistreatment and abuse whilst participating in sport. As result, there has been much support from stakeholders for the plight and well-being of athletes, indeed such concerns led to the commissioning of a “Duty of Care” report in the United Kingdom by former Paralympic athlete, Baroness Tanni Grey-Thompson. Her report was published in April 2017 and covered a number of important areas, including safeguarding and mental welfare. Although the focus was on athletes, there are a number of other participants in sport to whom a duty of care is, or should arguably, be owed. This article contextualizes the position in the UK and elsewhere in world when it comes to participants, the law and duty of care, focussing the analysis to a group of participants who do not garner the same attention: match officials. The author himself is a former football and current rugby union referee. The article shall consider how recent developments in national laws and sporting regulations may well extend the legal duty of care to protect match officials from what has become widespread and unacceptable levels of abuse and ill treatment by athletes and other stakeholders, as well as the options for remedy and redress.

There are fewer cases of such blatant acts to defy and subsequent heroic efforts to rearrange institutional norms than the Russian doping scandal. In adopting a neo-institutional perspective, the authors theorize the scandal as a case of attempted but failed institutional disruption. More specifically, the authors draw upon the institutional change literature and the institutional work perspective to explain the key events surrounding actors’ response to the scandal. The analysis utilized Gioia’s methodological approach to examine secondary empirical data. Findings reveal how stakeholders circumvented traditional governance structures in an attempt to disrupt institutional arrangements, but despite this, much of the preexisting institutional infrastructure has remained intact. The authors explain this outcome, in part, as a consequence of the counter-institutional work of key governing agencies and other actors to maintain the status quo within international sport.

Context: Because of its anabolic and lipolytic properties, growth hormone (GH) use is prohibited in sport. Two methods based on population-derived decision limits are currently used to detect human GH (hGH) abuse: the hGH Biomarkers Test and the Isoforms Differential Immunoassay. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that longitudinal profiling of hGH biomarkers through application of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) has the potential to flag hGH abuse. Methods: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and procollagen III peptide (P-III-NP) distributions were obtained from 7 years of anti-doping data in elite athletes (n = 11 455) and applied as priors to analyze individual profiles from an hGH administration study in recreational athletes (n = 35). An open-label, randomized, single-site, placebo-controlled administration study was carried out with individuals randomly assigned to 4 arms: placebo, or 3 different doses of recombinant hGH. Serum samples were analyzed for IGF-1, P-III-NP, and hGH isoforms and the performance of a longitudinal, ABP-based approach was evaluated. Results: An ABP-based approach set at a 99% specificity level flagged 20/27 individuals receiving hGH treatment, including 17/27 individuals after cessation of the treatment. ABP sensitivity ranged from 12.5% to 71.4% across the hGH concentrations tested following 7 days of treatment, peaking at 57.1% to 100% after 21 days of treatment, and was maintained between 37.5% and 71.4% for the low and high dose groups 1 week after cessation of treatment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that longitudinal profiling of hGH biomarkers can provide suitable performance characteristics for use in anti-doping programs.

Organisations funded by Sport England or UK Sport must work towards achieving standards for safeguarding and protecting children in sport as set by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children’s Child Protection in Sport Unit (CPSU) and encourage a culture of listening to children. The present research was commissioned by the NSPCC CPSU to understand the practices of UK sports clubs regarding this objective. An electronic questionnaire was distributed through the national governing bodies of sport working with the CPSU. Some 64 clubs/squads representing 6,000+ juniors (under 18 years) responded. Quantitative data were analysed using simple statistics and qualitative data were themed utilising Foucault’s theory of power and following Braun and Clark’s six-phase guide. Discourse, hierarchical judgement and docility were considered with reference to formal management and cultural environments. Semantic and latent themes were explored. The themes identified were: expectation awareness, reframing voice and preserving discourse. Clubs recognise the value of listening to children. However, existing power relations valorise adult knowledge fields over the experiences of juniors. Technology could provide an effective solution as it is remote, potentially anonymous and culturally accessible. As power is a productive force, problematisation of organisational culture could centralise children’s voices and limit/prevent abuse.

Purpose: Violence against women is a global epidemic. Such violence occurs in sport, although previous research has focused on child/youth sexual abuse or elite sport. Despite sport being identified as having a role in preventing violence against women, little is known about how sport organizations respond to violence against adult women in community sport. Methods: Twenty-two individual participants from 12 sports organizations based in Victoria, Australia participated in this empirical and applied Concept Mapping study to explore the perceived challenges sports organizations face in responding to violence against women. Concept Mapping is a mixed-method participatory approach and we analyzed the results using a socio-ecological framework. Results: Sports administrators considered training-related challenges as the most important but most difficult to address. Challenges related to organizational capacity/social environment were perceived as easier but less important to address. Conclusions: Key initiatives can be developed to support sport organizations to respond to violence against women in sport, but they will need assistance to prioritize initiatives addressing the most important challenges given a perceived lack of capacity to do so.

Abuse of androgens and erythropoietin has led to hormones being the most effective and frequent class of ergogenic substances prohibited in elite sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). At present, thyroid hormone (TH) abuse is not prohibited, but its prevalence among elite athletes and nonprohibited status remains controversial. A corollary of prohibiting hormones for elite sports is that endocrinologists must be aware of a professional athlete’s risk of disqualification for using prohibited hormones and/or to certify Therapeutic Use Exemptions, which allow individual athletes to use prohibited substances for valid medical indications. This narrative review considers the status of TH within the framework of the WADA Code criteria for prohibiting substances, which requires meeting 2 of 3 equally important criteria of potential performance enhancement, harmfulness to health, and violation of the spirit of sport. In considering the valid clinical uses of TH, the prevalence of TH use among young adults, the reason why some athletes seek to use TH, and the pathophysiology of sought-after and adverse effects of TH abuse, together with the challenges of detecting TH abuse, it can be concluded that, on the basis of present data, prohibition of TH in elite sport is neither justified nor feasible.

The determinants of success in Olympic Games competition are specific to the athletic demands of the sporting event. A global evaluation to quantify the athletic demands across the spectrum of the Olympic Games sport events has not previously been conducted. Thus far, the interpretation and the comparison of sport physiological characteristics within anti-doping organisations (ADOs) risk assessments remains subjective without a standardised framework. Despite its subjective assessment, this information is a key component of any anti-doping programme. Sport characteristics inevitably influence the type of substances and/or methods used for doping purposes and should be captured through a comprehensive analysis. Seven applied sport scientists independently conducted an assessment to quantify the athletic demands across six preselected athletic variables. A principal component analysis was performed on the results of the panel’s quantitative assessment for 160 Olympic sport events. Sport events were clustered using the Hierarchical Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (HDBSCAN) algorithm. The HDBSCAN identified 19 independent cluster groups; 36 sport events remained statistically unassigned to a cluster group representing unique and event-specific athletic demands. This investigation provides guidance to the anti-doping community to assist in the development of the sport specific physiology component of the risk assessment for Olympic Games disciplines. The dominant athletic characteristics to excel in each of these individual events will highlight areas of how athletes may strive to gain a competitive advantage through doping strategies, and inform the development of an effective and proportionate allocation of testing resources.

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has long been the organization responsible for making and harmonizing anti-doping policies in international sport. As the Rodchenkov Act was signed into law in the United States, however, it became possible for the U.S. to target organizers of systematic doping with criminal penalties even outside their national borders, and in doing so also pose a challenge to WADA’s hegemony over the anti-doping narrative. Drawing on official organizational statements and those made by sport stakeholders in media coverage, this article uses the implementation of the Rodchenkov Act as a case study to dissect and analyze the interdependence between national and international anti-doping policy/laws. The analysis shows how the U.S., through the Rodchenkov Act, is pushing the accepted anti-doping paradigm to an extreme and engaging in a form of resistance against WADA’s hegemony. By extending its own authority and abilities beyond its national borders and applying tougher sanctions on doping conspirators, the U.S./USADA position themselves as being the party strong enough to lead and shape the anti-doping regime. In effect, they are grabbing power from WADA and dislocating its hegemony in the process. Even as it reordered its national values above global sport values, it was able to leverage anti-dopism in service of its own goals of authority.

The sport movement must protect children and young athletes from all forms of abuse. However, research points to a disconnect between policy and implementation of policy against sexual abuse. No studies have investigated measures against sexual abuse in Swedish sport. The purpose of this study was to explore measures against sexual abuse in the 10 largest sports federations (SFs) for child and youth sport in Sweden. The study draws on interviews with representatives (n = 18) of the SFs and on a review of SFs’ website content regarding sexual abuse and safe sport. Results show that the SFs have taken few or no measures against sexual abuse. Measures for safe sports vary in existence, development, and organization between the SFs, and many SFs are in the early stages of safe sport measures and practice. Although the SF representatives emphasize that sexual abuse is unacceptable, a conflict between making it visible or invisible emerges and creates a gap between policy and practice. Reproducing a culture of silence around sexual abuse in sports seems advantageously for SFs. Social and organizational factors that can debilitate safe sport measures and facilitate sexual abuse in sport are discussed.

Dietary supplements encompass a large heterogenic group of products with a wide range of ingredients and declared effects used by athletes for a multitude of reasons. The high prevalence of use across all sports and level of competition, combined with the well-documented risks of such products containing prohibited substances have led to several doping cases globally. Despite being a considerable concern and persistent focus of sport organizations and anti-doping agencies, the magnitude of anti-doping rule violations associated with supplement use is not well-known. This study examines 18-years of doping controls of a national anti-doping program to determine the relationship between the presence of prohibited substances in athlete’s doping samples and the use of dietary supplements. In 26% (n = 49) of all the analytical anti-doping rule violation cases in the period 2003–2020 (n = 192), the athlete claimed that a dietary supplement was the source of the prohibited substance causing an adverse analytical finding. Evidence supporting this claim was found in about half of these cases (n = 27, i.e., 14% of all analytical ADRV’s). Stimulants were the most prevalent substance group linked to supplements (n = 24), of which methylhexanamine was associated with 16 cases. High risk products were predominantly multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (n = 20) and fat-burning products (n = 4). Anti-doping organizations should develop strategies on how to assist athletes to assess the need, assess the risk and assess the consequences of using various dietary supplements.

The fight against doping in sport, formally started in 1960 with the constitution of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and culminated in 1999 with the birth of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), commissioned to chair various activities, including the publication of the annual list of prohibited substances and methods for doping. In Europe, as early as 1967, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a resolution to stigmatise the intake of substances foreign to the body for the sole purpose of artificially and unfairly influencing sports performance. In 2002, the Council of Europe adopted an Additional Protocol to the 1989 Strasbourg Convention against Doping to ensure mutual recognition of doping controls and to strengthen the enforcement of the Convention. In Italy, the Law of 14 December 2000 n. 376 “Discipline of the health protection of sports activities and the fight against doping”, defines doping as “the administration or intake of drugs or biologically or pharmacologically active substances and the adoption or submission to medical practices not justified by pathological conditions and suitable to modify the psychophysical or biological conditions of the organism in order to alter the athletic performance of athletes”. The same law regulates the use of drugs or biologically or pharmacologically active substances and update an annual list in agreement with WADA. The article aims to analyse the legislation from a national perspective, offering as complete a view as possible of the current situation.

Socio-cultural research on athlete maltreatment is well documented, with much work focused on examining the spectrum of mistreatment and programmatic/policy responses. While some sport governing bodies have implemented a ‘duty of care’ approach, more definitional analyses of care and caring in competitive youth sport remain absent. This gap served as point of departure for an institutional ethnographic study designed to examine practices of care and caring within the context of youth competitive volleyball through a socio-philosophical lens. Informed by the philosophical frameworks espoused in the Ethics of Care and the Ethics of Need, this paper utilises textual and interview data from the larger study to examine how athletes, coaches, and parents interpret and practice care in relationship to notions of care established in the sport organisation’s governing policies. The results showed how, at the institutional level, notions of care expressed in the sport organisation’s governing documents focused more so on identifying and preventing uncaring practices rather than illuminating what constitutes care and caring, while participants negotiated and interpreted their lived experiences of care as the prioritisation of the needs of athletes over the performance imperative. This was particularly true for coaches who were dually tasked with the care-taking of youth athletes on their teams, whilst also ensuring performance success on the playing field. Thus, coaches are responsible for practices of care in situ that are not fulsomely addressed in governing policies, which presents challenges for coaches when balancing athletes’ needs while also adhering to the aims of competitive sport.

Sexual violence in sport is prevalent and represents a serious public health concern. The social-ecological model for health promotion has been used successfully as a framework to identify individual-to-policy level factors aimed at health promotion or disease prevention. The purpose of this review was to examine both published and non-published (publicly available) SVP efforts conducted within the context of sport and make recommendations for future practice. Grey literature search methods were utilized to conduct a review of publicly available documents. This included (a) a comprehensive Google search using unique search terms that would identify SVP efforts within sport settings and (b) a review of the publicly accessible websites identified in the previous step. Following the grey literature search, and using the SVP practices identified in step one, we conducted a supplementary literature search using scientific publication search engines to identify whether the SVP practices identified in step one had associated peer-reviewed publications. Finally, we assessed various characteristics of each SVP practice including the target population, age range of intended participants, and whether the SVP had associated peer review publications. This led to the identification of 35 unique SVP practices: 25 (71%) SVP practices were assigned to the Intrapersonal level, 6 (17%) were assigned to the Interpersonal level, 9 (26%) were assigned to the Organizational level, 3 (9%) were assigned to the Community, and 2 (6%) were assigned to the Policy level. This review uncovered several important findings including a lack of multi-level SVP practices within sport, a lack of SVP practices that target children, minimal programming aimed at specifically preventing perpetration, the need to elevate policy level action, and a lack of peer-reviewed literature. Ultimately findings suggest that sport organizations ought to prioritize sexual violence prevention using national organizations for guidance.

Sport, as a microcosm of society, is not immune to the abuse of its stakeholders. Attention to abuse in sport has recently become a priority for sport organisations following several high-profile cases of athlete abuse from different sports around the world. Resulting from this increased awareness, many sport organisations have commenced work in the field of athlete safeguarding including the development of policy, educational programmes, reporting pathways, investigation mechanisms and research initiatives. One mechanism adopted by many sport organisations to support their safeguarding efforts is the engagement of survivors of abuse in sport: typically, as guest speakers at conferences or educational events. Unfortunately, many sport organisations do not have the knowledge or trauma-informed expertise to engage survivors safely and effectively; and in doing so, may unintentionally retraumatise the survivor if erroneous methods of engagement are employed. For some survivors, this experience may compound the original harms, and thus it also represents an area of vulnerability for the organising entity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the rationale for partnering with survivors of abuse in sport in safeguarding initiatives and to propose a living conceptual framework to support effective and safe survivor engagement in safeguarding initiatives. We will explore the underpinning scientific background, as well as the ‘why’, and ‘how’ of survivor engagement to inform sport organisations, research scientists, policy-makers, conference organisers, safeguarding officers, sport medicine clinicians and survivors themselves.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been impacting the whole society in every aspect of the daily life, comprising the sport field. Several restrictive strategies have been implemented by governments in an effort to stem the spread of the disease and salvage public health. Such efforts have severely constrained access to non-essential services, leading to the closure of non-essential points of gathering and business and the enforcement of rigorous social distancing and prolonged lockdowns, in addition to masking and stay-at-home mandates. However necessary, there is no denying that such extremely rigorous, and to most people unprecedented, measures have adversely affected the global economy and the daily lives of everyone of us, including professional and amateur athletes. The most important sport events were postponed or cancelled, including the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. But how was the phenomenon of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use impacted and how was the most concerning issue affecting the integrity of sport affected by the pandemic control restrictions?

Studies exploring bullying in sport psychology remain relatively limited despite various media reports of the abusive practice of some professional soccer coaches. This research explores coaches’ views of bullying in professional soccer academies and how it is framed in relation to banter. Five professional soccer coaches were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The methodology and analysis were guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coaches highlighted key components which identify bullying in professional soccer environments, such as intent to harm; frequency of behaviour; and an imbalance of power. Coaches also highlighted different individual and contextual factors which separated bullying from banter. These included individual differences; unintentional behaviour; immaturity; and the masculinity of the soccer culture. These findings provide an important extension to the bullying literature in sport by highlighting coaches’ own perspectives on this concept within the professional soccer context. The findings also illustrate the subtle nuances through which coaches separate bullying from banter. As such, important applied implications are discussed for the development of coach education programmes to raise greater awareness around these concepts as well as the potential consequences of bullying and banter on player welfare in professional soccer.

Only recently has research begun to focus on workplace bullying within organizations outside of traditional white-collar industries, such as professional football. While this is an important development, there remains a lack of understanding around the reporting of bullying in professional sport. In this paper, the authors explore how the professional football workplace shapes perceptions of whistleblowing and unearths individual perceptions around reporting bullying behavior. We used a phenomenological approach to gain rich experiential data from eighteen male professional football players in the UK. Interview data were analyzed in accordance with the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two superordinate themes were identified from the analysis, (a) professional football’s influence on whistleblowing, and (b) the challenges of reporting bullying. These themes highlighted that the unique, institutionalized nature of professional football interacts with participants’ ability to report bullying behavior. The participants’ accounts revealed divergent perceptions around how professional football shapes the degree to which players feel they can report bullying behavior. It was apparent that the authoritarian, often abusive and intimidatory nature of professional football significantly impacts whistleblowing. Our findings demonstrate the importance of workplace context when exploring the reporting of bullying behavior. They also demonstrate the need to address organizational culture and differentiate bullying education programs to alternative workplaces.

Objective: To provide a review and discussion of a range of legal and ethical issues commonly faced by team physicians, with reference to high-profile international integrity crises in sport that have involved doctors. The article also presents some recommendations and guidance for team doctors and sporting organizations. Data Sources: Media reports, legal cases, and journal articles describing recent sporting integrity crises that have involved medical issues and governance reforms which are emerging in response. Main Results: Many of the modern “integrity crises” in sport have a medical aspect (eg, doping cases, catastrophic injuries and illnesses, “Bloodgate” and other “medical cheating,” sexual contact between doctors and athletes, harassment/bullying of doctors, concussion mismanagement, and management of the coronavirus pandemic in sport). A key issue is that while doctors bear ultimate responsibility for any perceived medical negligence, they do not always have ultimate power in decision-making. This is common in the traditional governance structure where the coach/manager “outranks” the doctor and can overrule medical decisions. There can be a blurring of the traditional doctor–patient relationship, especially on tour, and conflicts of interests occur when the needs of the employer/sporting organization differ from the player (patient). Further issues can arise in treating other staff members and players’ family members. Conclusions: Doctors must be aware of range of important legal and ethical issues that arise in the team setting. Medical integrity crises have inspired governance reforms, such as policy development, appointment of chief medical officers, medical staff reporting to integrity departments, and sanctions of teams that breach medical integrity requirements. Sporting organizations must continue to implement and strengthen frameworks reinforcing doctors’ seniority in the medical area.

There is now undeniable evidence of child maltreatment in sport. This has provoked the gradual proliferation of safeguarding research aimed at protecting children from harm in sport. Such research recognises the need for a comprehensive and holistic approach that addresses individual, interpersonal and systemic contributors to child maltreatment in sport. This study sought to provide such an approach by applying the well-researched concept of safety culture to safeguarding children in sport. The aim of this study was to conceptualise safety culture from a child safeguarding in sport perspective (i.e., safeguarding culture). To achieve this, 77 participants from five globally representative organisations took part in 45 Interviews and 7 focus groups. This produced 52 units of qualitative data which were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings suggested that safeguarding culture represents a holistic and integrated approach to prevent child maltreatment which comprises three first-order themes; safety management systems, committed leadership and stakeholder engagement. These themes have dynamic and reciprocal relationships, with their ideal formation and application dependent on internal and external contextual factors. Based on these findings, the Safeguarding Culture in Sport Model is presented before practical implications, limitations and directions for future research are offered. By presenting a new approach and model to safeguarding children in sport, this study represents an important advancement of knowledge around safeguarding children in sport.

In Testing for Athlete Citizenship: Regulating Doping and Sex in Sport, Kathryn E. Henne provides a genealogical account of anti-doping regulation by questioning the meanings we take from sport. Its six chapters (and its appendix) analyze anti-doping and the meanings attached to sport from multiple perspectives by including a plurality of voices. The author includes such voices and perspectives by conducting ethnographic and archival research. Starting from the premise that sport articulates meanings concerning embodiment, physical ability, and human difference, the book examines three topics: (a) the emergence of doping as a transgression in sport; (b) the meanings of sport (grasped through the study of anti-doping regulation); and (c) the relationship between sport regulation and broader social trends in regulation and surveillance.

The aim of this article is to present and critically discuss a game-theory-based argument in favour of the view that sports organizations ought to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. After presenting the argument in detail, I try to show that the argument is not convincing. First, the argument cannot be used to argue in favour of WADA’s (World Anti-Doping Agency) current ban on doping, at least if it rests on the assumption, that doping use is always harmful. However, that in itself may not be a problem for adherents of the argument, and they can and should modify the harm assumption to cover only harmful use of doping. Second, even with this modification, it is argued that the harm assumption is flawed, for example, because it is not obvious why we should accept certain harms in sport but not harm to athletes caused by doping. Third, the argument is also flawed because it entails the non-competitive assumption: if all athletes dope, then no competitive advantages are gained by any athletes assumptions. The non-competitive assumption is challenged in view of the observations that doping can have some non-competitive advantages and is, so to speak, not only a positional good and because doping, due to unequal responsiveness, can give some highly responsive athletes a competitive advantage over less responsive athletes.

With the World Anti-Doping Agency’s International Standard for Education (ISE) coming into effect in 2021, the clean-sport movement is at a pivotal stage. Through this conceptual paper we juxtapose the sector-wide anti-doping education as set out in the ISE on the decision-making process at the individual level. We discuss three critical issues for the clean-sport movement. First, we make the case for doping being a “wicked” problem and outline the possible implications of this for prevention and detection. Second, we consider why we need to address regulative, normative, and cognitive components of clean sport if we are to maximize its legitimacy. Third, we critically expose the fluidity with which clean sport is defined, and the implications of defining clean sport in substance- vs. rule-based terms, which, respectively, lead to theorizing clean sport as “drug-free” vs. “cheating-free” sport. Finally, we consider the role and key components of anti-doping education and how the relevance of certain components may be dependent on the way clean sport is defined. Conceptualizing doping as a sport integrity issue, we move away from the archaic and delimiting view of clean sport as drug-free sport and conclude with recommendations on how to reconcile values-based education, awareness raising, information provision and anti-doping education within the broader scope of integrity, to support informed decision making and personal agency. To connect anti-doping education to individual-level decision making, we recommend a staggered approach in which specific education content is linked to different influences in the decision-making process, to different stages of athlete development, and to different educational goals. Emphasizing and encouraging sensemaking in anti-doping decision making offers a pragmatic approach for anti-doping education. Conceptual clarity and precise mapping of the educational goal, content, and delivery is vital for valid and meaningful evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-doping education.

This article provides a brief overview of the summary report of a research program conducted with the World AntiDoping Agency (WADA) for safeguarding in anti-doping. The research aimed to understand the « psycho-social determinants of [athletes’] doping behaviors » and « athletes[‘] experience[s] during the sanction period, in order to construct a multi-disciplinary intervention program that promotes [athletes’] clean and safe comeback in the sports world and their social-professional integration…to enrich anti-doping prevention campaigns. » The report detailed the findings from qualitative interviews with 11 athletes who were, at the time, under sanction for an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV). In the 11 years since the report’s publication, little has changed. WADA has not yet implemented such a system, though a large investment was made in the anti-doping education and learning (ADeL) platform available online. The monitoring process of anti-doping screenings still does not take into consideration athletes’ psycho-social states, and a 2020 review of 22 Olympic committees found no offering of comprehensive rehabilitation support available to athletes after an ADRV. While only a few national Olympic committees (NOCs) offer resources of any kind, a similar number emphasized that they intentionally and immediately sever all support to an athlete after an ADRV. Any such program will require a certain investment in order to operate and will be restricted geographically where access to trained clinicians is uncommon. Thus, a program like WINDOP has the potential to affect multiple populations heretofore ignored in the pursuit of clean sport. By educating young athletes, monitoring athletes’ psycho-social pressures, and providing a safe path of rehabilitation, we can implement a health-based approach to safeguarding athlete physical and mental welfare through more responsible and effective global doping control.

Socioeconomic differences between countries, including corruption and doping scandals, have increased in the last few decades. The aims of the current investigation were to examine doping prevalence according to world areas and sport groups and its association with socioeconomic factors worldwide. The Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) of 160 countries competing at 2016 Olympics were analyzed between 2013 and 2018. In addition, the relationship between doping prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics, including Human Development Index (HDI), Per Capita Income (PCI) and Corruption Index (CI), was investigated. Africa, Asia, and America were revealed to have a significantly lower doping prevalence than Europe and Oceania when observing the sum and the mean ADRV/10,000 inhabitants (p < 0.01). Strong to moderate correlations were identified between Corruption Index and ADRVs and HDI and ADRVs (p < 0.01). However, the number of Olympic athletes was positively associated with the ADRVs and the HDI (r = 0.663 and 0.424, respectively). In the comparison by sport groups, the Independent Recognized Sports (AIMS) showed significantly higher Adverse Analytical Findings (AAF) and ADRVs (p < 0.01) than Olympic and Recognized International Sports (ARISF). In conclusion, the results of the current study reveal doping prevalence differences between world areas and sport categories, identifying associations with socioeconomic characteristics of each country.

The rules of fair play in sport generally prohibit the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees global antidoping regulations and testing for elite athletes participating in Olympic sports. Efforts to enforce antidoping policies are complicated by the diverse and evolving compounds and strategies employed by athletes to gain a competitive edge. Now between the uniquely proximate 2021 Tokyo and 2022 Beijing Olympic Games, we discuss WADA’s efforts to prevent PED use during the modern Olympic Games. Then, we review the major PED classes with a focus on pathophysiology, complexities of antidoping testing, and relevant toxicities. Providers from diverse practice environments are likely to care for patients using PEDs for a variety of reasons and levels of sport; these providers should be aware of common PED classes and their risks.

Objectives: The phenomenon of doping is rarely researched in Paralympic sport, especially from the coach perspective. This study responds directly to this gap in research by exploring coaches’ doping-related perceptions, knowledge, and opinions of the current anti-doping system in order to inform future interventions specific to disabled elite sport contexts. Method: Eleven coaches from Germany (n = 6) and the UK (n = 5) working across physiological (n = 7) and skill-based (n = 4) sport disciplines at an elite level (Paralympic, n = 10 and World Championship, n = 1) took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using abductive reflexive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2019a). Findings: Four themes were developed to capture the coaches’ perspectives. The first represents coaches’ perception that doping is an issue in Paralympic sport. The second theme shows that risk factors to dope are typically multiple and intertwined, stemming especially from financial incentives and pressure to win. Theme three captures coaches’ opinion of differences in testing and education across countries due to budget, resource, or infrastructure issues. Finally, data showed that coaches prefer to refer responsibility for doping prevention to their national anti-doping organisation, rather than taking on personal responsibility for anti-doping efforts. Conclusions: According to the interviewed coaches, doping has the potential to be a big issue in disabled elite sport. The main risk factors of money and pressure to win (earn prize money or funding/sponsorship) are knitted together and can be additionally impacted (negatively) by a nation’s sporting system. These factors should be addressed by thinking both on an individual level (e.g., support dual careers) and a structural/policy level (e.g., aim to have minimum standards to level the global inconsistent anti-doping systems, including anti-doping education/testing). Furthermore, coaches should take their role and be proactively made aware of their responsibility in doping prevention to coach clean and protect their athletes properly.

With increased media scrutiny, public awareness, and research on the prevalence of maltreatment experiences in sport, sport organizations have faced increased pressures to combat unsafe practices in sport. A consequence has been the emergence of the Safe Sport movement whereby organizations including the International Olympic Committee, Safe Sport International, US Center for SafeSport, Sport Canada, and others, have developed policies, initiatives, and education intended to create safer sport environments for all participants. Most of these policies have been implemented using a top-down approach, driven by government officials and sport leaders. However, if safe sport initiatives are to benefit athletes, consideration and incorporation of athletes’ perspectives in the development and implementation of initiatives are imperative. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine athletes’ perspectives on the challenges and recommendations to advancing safe sport. As part of a large-scale survey of current and retired Canadian National Team Athletes’ experiences of maltreatment, open-ended questions were asked about athletes’ recommendations and considerations for safe sport. Responses to these questions (n = 386) were analyzed using thematic analysis. According to the participants, barriers and challenges to safe sport included emphasizing performance excellence at-all-costs, normalization and complicity of harm, lack of attention to equity, diversity and inclusion, a culture of fear and silence, and a lack of trust in organizations to handle cases of harm. In an effort to advance safe sport, participants recommended prioritizing holistic athlete development, improving and strengthening accountability measures, implementing an independent 3rd party for disclosure, reporting and support, increased attention to equity, diversity and inclusion, stakeholder education, prohibition of sexual relations between athletes and those in positions of power and authority, and adoption of a broader perspective of harms and perpetrators. Findings are interpreted and critiqued in light of previous literature and recommendations for future research and practice are suggested.

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