Violence institutionnelle ou politique
Violence institutionnelle ou politique
Définition : La violence politique réfère à la législation et au cadre de loi qui structure les décisions politiques. Par exemple, ce type de violence peut résulter, par exemple, par l’absence de législation pour protéger les jeunes athlètes ou par l’absence de système de plainte véritablement indépendant des organisations sportives, le tout géré par l’État (Parent et El Hlimi, 2013).
La violence institutionnelle est définie par les pratiques quotidiennes des organisations et des institutions ayant un impact néfaste sur les membres des groupes subordonnés, et est qualifiée de « violence discriminatoire » (Kendall, 1997, p.306). Dans le contexte sportif, la violence institutionnelle fait référence à toutes formes de violence qui proviennent, sont perpétrées ou tolérées par les organisations sportives (ex. : fédérations, associations, clubs sportifs). Par exemple, cela peut faire référence à la corruption ou à l’exploitation financière des jeunes athlètes (travail sportif des enfants athlètes d’élite, trafic d’enfants pour le sport, etc.) ou à la différence de salaire entre les hommes et les femmes dans le milieu sportif. Ainsi, la violence économique est incluse dans la violence institutionnelle.
Mai 2023 à août 2023
In January of 2018, after decades of sexual abuse of hundreds of athletes under his medical care, USA Gymnastics team doctor Larry Nassar faced 156 of the women he victimized when they testified at his sentencing hearing and detailed the abuse. In the wake of the Nassar verdict, gymnastics and other youth sports organizations have come under fire for abusive practices that victimize young athletes. Scholars have recently argued for an approach to understanding sexual violence as an organizational, rather than individual, phenomenon. The power organizations possess to inflict violence on their members requires an understanding of the increased role of organizations in our decision-making and shaping our values and desires. Through an analysis of testimonies submitted by women who were victimized by Nassar as children, I argue that violence was intentionally deployed as an organizing strategy by USA Gymnastics. Abusive organizational practices traumatized girls, leading them to recalibrate their expectations for what was normal and acceptable, ultimately facilitating their abuse. I propose “high-stakes organizations” as contexts particularly vulnerable to violent organizational practices. I argue, in these high-stakes organizations, trauma is likely to be deployed as a strategy for organizational commitment, further fostering precarity in modern organizations.
Décembre 2022 à avril 2023
Objective: The use of performance and image enhancement drugs (PIEDs) in recreational sport is a common practice and there is a need to develop preventive interventions. The study’s aim was to investigate the acceptability and usability of an online e-learning course and an information app designed to support PIED prevention training activities in professionals working with recreational athletes. Design: A mixed-method design was used with 51 professionals from Finland, Greece, and Lithuania evaluating the e-learning course through surveys and interviews. Similarly, 19 Greek professionals evaluated the information app. Main outcome measures: Participants completed surveys and participated in semi-structured interviews measuring both tool’s acceptability, usability, and implementation. Results: Participants commented positively on the value and content of both tools. They reported increased knowledge on PIEDs risks and understanding of motives for PIED use. Also, their competence and confidence in interacting with clients and assisting them to quit increased. The e-learning course was perceived as compatible with existing practices. The main barrier was a lack of time in interacting with clients. Conclusion: The study provides valuable information on the acceptability and usability of two educational approaches against doping. Anti-doping educational authorities could integrate these tools into their activities to educate fitness instructors about doping.
After two years of discussions and revisions, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code on June 16, 2020. Among the most significant additions to this iteration of the Code was the inclusion of new categories of athletes subject to differential treatment by WADA, including the “protected person” category. In this paper, we examine the recent case of figure skater Kamila Valeryevna Valieva, the first athlete given differential treatment due to her being categorized as a “protected person.” We apply a relational justice framework to the case to provide a nuanced, descriptive analysis of the case generally, and the application of the “protected person” category in particular.We first describe details of the athlete, her performances and anti-doping rule violation, and the “protected person” category, to provide context. We then describe and analyze the relations between several institutional actors, principally WADA and the International Court for the Arbitration of Sport (CAS), the athlete and her team, and other figure skating athletes at the Beijing Winter Olympic Games. To do so, we use two concepts of justice, conservative and ideal, and their component parts, entitlement, desert, and need.Our description and analyses demonstrate that (1) WADA’s notions of justice are essentially conservative, while CAS acted toward more ideal notions, creating a fundamental disagreement in what was owed and to whom. We show (2) that CAS’ decision may have nonetheless caused harm to the athlete, raising questions about the efficacy and capability of the “protected person” category. Finally, (3) our analyses show the influence that notions of justice necessarily have these actors shape each other, thus change the sporting institutions and activities themselves.
In response to numerous highly publicized cases of athlete maltreatment, sport organizations have developed prevention and intervention strategies under the umbrella term of Safe Sport; however, confusion exists about what it does and does not encompass. To better understand what Safe Sport encompasses, this study sought to develop a conceptual framework of Safe Sport, informed by the perspectives of various stakeholders in sport. Using a social constructivist grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty-one participants, including athletes, coaches, sport administrators, and researchers. The results are interpreted to suggest that participants’ understanding of Safe Sport are informed by three overarching themes: environmental and physical safety, relational safety, and optimising sport, all of which are viewed as continuously evolving relative to the ever-changing context of sport and broader society. Recommendations are made to optimise sport experiences and thus prevent physical and psychological harms through a safeguarding approach that prioritizes the promotion of human rights.
The persistence of integrity problems in national sports organizations (NSOS) globally suggests that current approaches (e.g., good governance, piece meal legislation and policy) to curbing them are ineffective. Scholars have argued for a broad strategy to enhance integrity, deter unethical behavior, and prevent integrity system failures. theoretical gap exists in conceptualizing a national sport integrity system (NSIS). Drawing from accountability, integrity systems, integrity management, and sport integrity literatures a holistic and configurational framework of the actors, and the internal and external components of a NSIS was conceptualized. A NSIS is comprised of institutions, policies, practices, agencies, and actors responsible for promoting and safeguarding the integrity of an NSO. A NSIS was designed for both federated and unitary sport governance models that onsists of three interconnected components: the institutions that serve as the operational arm of the system, the accountability arm that is responsible for guarding integrity, and actors who manage the operational systems and accountability mechanisms. An NSO collaboratively coordinates and assists with capacity building to suitably delivery the system components across the respective levels of governance. The paper concludes with consideration of how the system may be used in practice, challenges for adoption, and directions for future research.
In this article, we examine scholarly analyses of justice and develop a framework that can help assess the claims from the parties in the Russian state-led doping scandal, including, but not limited to, Russian athletes, non-Russian athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and sport governing bodies. The two key components of this justice framework are pluralism and relationality/contextuality. We argue that a justice framework built upon these elements better captures the nature of justice. We conclude that no party in the Russian state-led doping case has exclusive access to justice. Rather, all the parties have legitimate calls for justice against one another. Thus, the administration of justice will fail to serve justice, in its different meanings, for all parties.
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The State doping scandal in Russia has highlighted a major discrepancy in the fight against doping in sport: on the one hand, the signatories of the Word Anti-Doping Code (federations, NADO’s, etc.) are subject to a very strict regime and incur serious sanctions, while on the other hand, States, when they massively violate the rules, do not risk very important consequences in international law. For example, high ranking officials as well as the Russian state apparatus have not been affected with a few exceptions such as the Moscow antidoping laboratory. The aim of this opinion paper is to present a reflection on the different avenues that could be envisaged to make governments more accountable, especially as work is underway on the topic. The development of a true government accountability regime would allow the system to be more balanced.
In recent years, an increasing number of cases of sexual violence (SV) in organized sports have received worldwide attention. To counteract the emergence of SV, various preventive measures have been developed and implemented. However, the effectiveness of these preventive measures has not been adequately tested. To close this gap, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a workshop intervention that was conducted within the context of organized sports in Germany. The one-day workshop intervention was conducted with 137 stakeholders in organized sports (coaches, athletes, board members, and parents). The intervention was evaluated by measuring the short-term (immediately before and after the workshop) and long-term effects (six months after the workshop). The analyses showed positive short-term (such as on attitudes toward SV and the intention to act against SV) and positive long-term effects (on knowledge about SV and a culture of prevention in the sports club and club behavior) of the workshop. The workshop was effective in the short term and the long term regarding the most relevant indicators (i.e., taking measures against SV). Therefore, it can be concluded that more workshops should be held in clubs in order to sensitize stakeholders and foster measures against SV in sports.
In 2011, the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine released their first position paper on Abuse, Harassment, and Bullying in Sport. Since this time, there have been significant advancements within the global sport landscape, including the emergence of regulatory bodies and initiatives aimed at prioritizing athletes’ health and well-being. While the shift to a more proactive approach for safeguarding athletes is evident and promising, athletes continue to be affected by cases of maltreatment. To advance safe sport, it is critical that all supporters of safe and healthy performance are aware of their roles and responsibilities for preventing and addressing maltreatment, including the Canadian sport medicine community. In this updated position statement, recent advancements in research on issues of maltreatment are summarized and specific recommendations are provided on how the medical community can contribute to appropriately identifying, treating, and preventing harm in sport, as well as their role in advocating for the health and well-being of athletes in their care.
2022 – Janvier à novembre
Child sexual abuse is a complex issue that can take place in different contexts. Sports settings have specific features which pose increased risk for sexual abuse to occur. Recently, a country-specific roadmap for effective child safeguarding in sport was launched. Considering the need to achieve a comprehensive picture of violence against children in sports settings in Portugal, we analyzed the perceptions of the sports community in Portugal regarding child sexual abuse, its victims and perpetrators, and the specific risk factors in sports settings, as studies about this specific topic are scarce at the national level. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted using an online questionnaire with open-ended questions. Three hundred participants, i.e., sports managers, coaches, and athletes over 18 years of age (M = 33.13; SD = 13.062), of which 55.7% were female, answered. A thematic analysis of these data was conducted using NVivo software. Inter-rater agreement was strong for almost all variables. Results indicated that sexual abuse is perceived as being associated with physical and emotional abusive behaviors for which there is no consent from the victim, in a relationship that is guided by a relationship with power imbalances. Victims were mainly perceived as being female children, and perpetrators as adult males in a powerful position over the victim. As to possible signs of sexual abuse victimization, results showed that the participants identify behaviors, such as isolation, and physical evidence, such as marks and injuries. Risk factors specific to sports setting included the physical contact involved in many modalities, as well as the close and trustful relationship established between coach and athlete. Results are in line with previous studies showing that coaches, athletes, and sports managers share a common understanding of sexual abuse, although not always accurate. These results shed light on important practical and policy implications relevant to country-specific sport policies for effectively safeguarding children.
The hematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) aims to reveal blood doping indirectly by looking at selected biomarkers of doping over time. For Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs), the ABP is a vital tool in the fight against doping in sports through improved target testing and analysis, investigations, deterrence, and as indirect evidence for use of prohibited methods or substances. The physiological characteristics of sport disciplines is an important risk factor in the overall risk assessment and when implementing the hematological module. Sharing of experiences with implementing the hematological ABP between ADOs is key to further strengthen and extend its use. In this study, we present 10 years of experience with the hematological ABP program from the perspectives of a National ADO with special attention to sport disciplines’ physiological characteristics as a potential risk factor for blood doping. Not surprisingly, most samples were collected in sport disciplines where the aerobic capacity is vital for performance. The study highlights strengths in Anti-Doping Norway’s testing program but also areas that could be improved. For example, it was shown that samples were collected both in and out of season in a subset of the data material that included three popular sports in Norway (Cross-Country Skiing, Nordic Combined, and Biathlon), however, from the total data material it was clear that athletes were more likely to be tested out of competition and on certain days of the week and times of the day. The use of doping control officers with a flexible time schedule and testing outside an athlete’s 60 min time-slot could help with a more even distribution during the week and day, and thus reduce the predictability of testing. In addition to promoting a discussion on testing strategies, the study can be used as a starting point for other ADOs on how to examine their own testing program.
Objectives: Anti-doping policies represent a group of regulations and procedures that are applied by anti-doping organizations in order to safeguard sports against doping. Evidence implies that, for anti-doping policies to be effective, they need to be endorsed by athletes. Still, there is scarce evidence on the process through which athletes decide to endorse and support anti-doping policies and the role of anti-doping education. The main objective of the study was to empirically examine a behavioural model of active anti-doping policy support. Methods: A self-reported survey with measures of perceived anti-doping legitimacy, social support via expected obedience, perceived trustworthiness and social cognitive variables associated with anti-doping policy support (attitudes, social norms, descriptive norms, perceived behavioural control, regret, and intention) was completed by 1328 competitive athletes in 6 countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Russia, Serbia, UK). Results: Athletes who live in countries with comprehensive (emphasis on individual development and competency with a focus on sport and personal integrity) anti-doping education (ADE) and had received ADE are more supportive of anti-doping policies than athletes from countries with basic education provision anti-doping education (information type education). Furthermore, athletes who received ADE reported significantly higher levels of perceived legitimacy, trustworthiness, and obedience. The results of the SEM revealed that perceptions of legitimacy had both direct and indirect effects on intentions to support anti-doping policies. The effect of perceptions of legitimacy was mediated by social cognitive variables, which demonstrated strong direct effects on intentions. Importantly, the model was invariant across the countries, although mean differences in several constructs emerged. Conclusions: Anti-doping milieu and education impact athletes’ willingness to support anti-doping policies. Interventions targeting legitimacy beliefs and social cognitive variables can be effective in promoting anti-doping policy support in competitive athletes. These interventions should expand beyond anti-doping policy legitimacy and target the specific beliefs (e.g., norms) that are pertinent to policy support in different countries.
The present study investigated the beliefs of athletes and sport stakeholders about whistleblowing against doping in elite competitive sport. Semi-structured interviews took place with five elite athletes, five coaches and five sport directors, from both team and individual sports in Cyprus. Three themes were identified through thematic analysis and reflected issues pertaining to: (a) understanding whistleblowing, (b) facilitating factors and barriers to whistleblowing, and (c) aspects of a reliable and transparent reporting system. Our findings corroborate previous research on whistleblowing against doping in sport, and provide novel insights about the beliefs, attitudes, and concerns of sport stakeholders, such as coaches and sport directors, about the feasibility of existing whistleblowing policies and processes. The policy and practice implications of our findings are discussed.
This paper aims to extend the small but growing body of global literature on the topic of child safeguarding (CSG) policy in sport and related educational contexts. The authors, all male coaches/educators, offer ‘snapshots’ of the moments in time they each realised their previously unquestioned practices must change in light of shifting societal attitudes to CSG and resulting legislation. Our contributions in this space are two-fold. Firstly, we present an autoethnographic methodology that provides a lens into the challenges confronting pedagogues in sport and related educational contexts. Through this methodology, we broaden the scope of discourse that we deem necessary for future CSG policy direction and operationalisation. Secondly, we explore and include an addition to the dominant ‘duality (dichotomy) of danger’ narrative discourse currently reflected in the literature. We do this by proposing a trichotomy of danger framework for leaders and managers of sport and related educational contexts to consider when plotting this future landscape. Research surrounding the possible implications of CSG policy on practice is critical if educators are to navigate the ‘risks’ of their professions. Although there is a small and emerging body of research on this topic, we, the authors seek to redress the scarcity of research observable in the Aotearoa New Zealand context.
Background: Whistleblowing has been recognized as an important deterrent of doping in elite competitive sport. The present study examined athletes’ knowledge of external whistleblowing channels and on how and where to report doping misconduct, perceived trust in different whistleblowing reporting channels, whistleblowing behaviour and athletes’ reasons for reporting (or not) doping misconduct. Methods: Athletes from Greece (n = 480), the Russian Federation (n = 512) and the United Kingdom (n = 171) completed a structured questionnaire on demographics, knowledge of different whistleblowing channels, perceived trust in internal and external whistleblowing channels, past whistleblowing behaviour and reasons for reporting (or not) doping misconduct. Results: The British athletes reported greater awareness of whistleblowing reporting channels (e.g., WADA’s Speak Up and IOC’s reporting platform) than did athletes from Greece (all p < 0.001) and Russia (p = 0.07, and p = 0.012) respectively. However, British athletes reported the lowest scores on knowledge of how and where to report doping misconduct, as compared to athletes from Greece and Russia. The majority of respondents reported greater trust to their coach or a club manager than to other whistleblowing channels, however, responses regarding other channels varied by country. Among athletes who detected doping misconduct 62% of athletes did not report it, while 38% reported it. Reasons for and against reporting doping misconduct reflected in eight themes that were identified using thematic analysis. Conclusion: Athletes showed low awareness of external whistleblowing channels and they predominantly trusted internal whistleblowing channels. Sportspersonship, confidence in resources and personal benefits were among the reasons that facilitate reporting doping misconduct. The present findings indicate that cultural context may play a role in the ways athletes perceive whistleblowing, and this should be taken into account by future interventions to promote the reporting of doping misconduct.
The welfare of participants in sport has historically been treated with lesser significance than other, largely commercial, considerations. In recent years, the wellbeing and treatment of athletes has come under the glare of the media and the public, due to a number of high-profile and deeply troubling claims of mistreatment and abuse whilst participating in sport. As result, there has been much support from stakeholders for the plight and well-being of athletes, indeed such concerns led to the commissioning of a “Duty of Care” report in the United Kingdom by former Paralympic athlete, Baroness Tanni Grey-Thompson. Her report was published in April 2017 and covered a number of important areas, including safeguarding and mental welfare. Although the focus was on athletes, there are a number of other participants in sport to whom a duty of care is, or should arguably, be owed. This article contextualizes the position in the UK and elsewhere in world when it comes to participants, the law and duty of care, focussing the analysis to a group of participants who do not garner the same attention: match officials. The author himself is a former football and current rugby union referee. The article shall consider how recent developments in national laws and sporting regulations may well extend the legal duty of care to protect match officials from what has become widespread and unacceptable levels of abuse and ill treatment by athletes and other stakeholders, as well as the options for remedy and redress.
There are fewer cases of such blatant acts to defy and subsequent heroic efforts to rearrange institutional norms than the Russian doping scandal. In adopting a neo-institutional perspective, the authors theorize the scandal as a case of attempted but failed institutional disruption. More specifically, the authors draw upon the institutional change literature and the institutional work perspective to explain the key events surrounding actors’ response to the scandal. The analysis utilized Gioia’s methodological approach to examine secondary empirical data. Findings reveal how stakeholders circumvented traditional governance structures in an attempt to disrupt institutional arrangements, but despite this, much of the preexisting institutional infrastructure has remained intact. The authors explain this outcome, in part, as a consequence of the counter-institutional work of key governing agencies and other actors to maintain the status quo within international sport.
Context: Because of its anabolic and lipolytic properties, growth hormone (GH) use is prohibited in sport. Two methods based on population-derived decision limits are currently used to detect human GH (hGH) abuse: the hGH Biomarkers Test and the Isoforms Differential Immunoassay. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that longitudinal profiling of hGH biomarkers through application of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) has the potential to flag hGH abuse. Methods: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and procollagen III peptide (P-III-NP) distributions were obtained from 7 years of anti-doping data in elite athletes (n = 11 455) and applied as priors to analyze individual profiles from an hGH administration study in recreational athletes (n = 35). An open-label, randomized, single-site, placebo-controlled administration study was carried out with individuals randomly assigned to 4 arms: placebo, or 3 different doses of recombinant hGH. Serum samples were analyzed for IGF-1, P-III-NP, and hGH isoforms and the performance of a longitudinal, ABP-based approach was evaluated. Results: An ABP-based approach set at a 99% specificity level flagged 20/27 individuals receiving hGH treatment, including 17/27 individuals after cessation of the treatment. ABP sensitivity ranged from 12.5% to 71.4% across the hGH concentrations tested following 7 days of treatment, peaking at 57.1% to 100% after 21 days of treatment, and was maintained between 37.5% and 71.4% for the low and high dose groups 1 week after cessation of treatment. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that longitudinal profiling of hGH biomarkers can provide suitable performance characteristics for use in anti-doping programs.
Organisations funded by Sport England or UK Sport must work towards achieving standards for safeguarding and protecting children in sport as set by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children’s Child Protection in Sport Unit (CPSU) and encourage a culture of listening to children. The present research was commissioned by the NSPCC CPSU to understand the practices of UK sports clubs regarding this objective. An electronic questionnaire was distributed through the national governing bodies of sport working with the CPSU. Some 64 clubs/squads representing 6,000+ juniors (under 18 years) responded. Quantitative data were analysed using simple statistics and qualitative data were themed utilising Foucault’s theory of power and following Braun and Clark’s six-phase guide. Discourse, hierarchical judgement and docility were considered with reference to formal management and cultural environments. Semantic and latent themes were explored. The themes identified were: expectation awareness, reframing voice and preserving discourse. Clubs recognise the value of listening to children. However, existing power relations valorise adult knowledge fields over the experiences of juniors. Technology could provide an effective solution as it is remote, potentially anonymous and culturally accessible. As power is a productive force, problematisation of organisational culture could centralise children’s voices and limit/prevent abuse.
Purpose: Violence against women is a global epidemic. Such violence occurs in sport, although previous research has focused on child/youth sexual abuse or elite sport. Despite sport being identified as having a role in preventing violence against women, little is known about how sport organizations respond to violence against adult women in community sport. Methods: Twenty-two individual participants from 12 sports organizations based in Victoria, Australia participated in this empirical and applied Concept Mapping study to explore the perceived challenges sports organizations face in responding to violence against women. Concept Mapping is a mixed-method participatory approach and we analyzed the results using a socio-ecological framework. Results: Sports administrators considered training-related challenges as the most important but most difficult to address. Challenges related to organizational capacity/social environment were perceived as easier but less important to address. Conclusions: Key initiatives can be developed to support sport organizations to respond to violence against women in sport, but they will need assistance to prioritize initiatives addressing the most important challenges given a perceived lack of capacity to do so.
Abuse of androgens and erythropoietin has led to hormones being the most effective and frequent class of ergogenic substances prohibited in elite sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). At present, thyroid hormone (TH) abuse is not prohibited, but its prevalence among elite athletes and nonprohibited status remains controversial. A corollary of prohibiting hormones for elite sports is that endocrinologists must be aware of a professional athlete’s risk of disqualification for using prohibited hormones and/or to certify Therapeutic Use Exemptions, which allow individual athletes to use prohibited substances for valid medical indications. This narrative review considers the status of TH within the framework of the WADA Code criteria for prohibiting substances, which requires meeting 2 of 3 equally important criteria of potential performance enhancement, harmfulness to health, and violation of the spirit of sport. In considering the valid clinical uses of TH, the prevalence of TH use among young adults, the reason why some athletes seek to use TH, and the pathophysiology of sought-after and adverse effects of TH abuse, together with the challenges of detecting TH abuse, it can be concluded that, on the basis of present data, prohibition of TH in elite sport is neither justified nor feasible.
The determinants of success in Olympic Games competition are specific to the athletic demands of the sporting event. A global evaluation to quantify the athletic demands across the spectrum of the Olympic Games sport events has not previously been conducted. Thus far, the interpretation and the comparison of sport physiological characteristics within anti-doping organisations (ADOs) risk assessments remains subjective without a standardised framework. Despite its subjective assessment, this information is a key component of any anti-doping programme. Sport characteristics inevitably influence the type of substances and/or methods used for doping purposes and should be captured through a comprehensive analysis. Seven applied sport scientists independently conducted an assessment to quantify the athletic demands across six preselected athletic variables. A principal component analysis was performed on the results of the panel’s quantitative assessment for 160 Olympic sport events. Sport events were clustered using the Hierarchical Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (HDBSCAN) algorithm. The HDBSCAN identified 19 independent cluster groups; 36 sport events remained statistically unassigned to a cluster group representing unique and event-specific athletic demands. This investigation provides guidance to the anti-doping community to assist in the development of the sport specific physiology component of the risk assessment for Olympic Games disciplines. The dominant athletic characteristics to excel in each of these individual events will highlight areas of how athletes may strive to gain a competitive advantage through doping strategies, and inform the development of an effective and proportionate allocation of testing resources.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has long been the organization responsible for making and harmonizing anti-doping policies in international sport. As the Rodchenkov Act was signed into law in the United States, however, it became possible for the U.S. to target organizers of systematic doping with criminal penalties even outside their national borders, and in doing so also pose a challenge to WADA’s hegemony over the anti-doping narrative. Drawing on official organizational statements and those made by sport stakeholders in media coverage, this article uses the implementation of the Rodchenkov Act as a case study to dissect and analyze the interdependence between national and international anti-doping policy/laws. The analysis shows how the U.S., through the Rodchenkov Act, is pushing the accepted anti-doping paradigm to an extreme and engaging in a form of resistance against WADA’s hegemony. By extending its own authority and abilities beyond its national borders and applying tougher sanctions on doping conspirators, the U.S./USADA position themselves as being the party strong enough to lead and shape the anti-doping regime. In effect, they are grabbing power from WADA and dislocating its hegemony in the process. Even as it reordered its national values above global sport values, it was able to leverage anti-dopism in service of its own goals of authority.
The sport movement must protect children and young athletes from all forms of abuse. However, research points to a disconnect between policy and implementation of policy against sexual abuse. No studies have investigated measures against sexual abuse in Swedish sport. The purpose of this study was to explore measures against sexual abuse in the 10 largest sports federations (SFs) for child and youth sport in Sweden. The study draws on interviews with representatives (n = 18) of the SFs and on a review of SFs’ website content regarding sexual abuse and safe sport. Results show that the SFs have taken few or no measures against sexual abuse. Measures for safe sports vary in existence, development, and organization between the SFs, and many SFs are in the early stages of safe sport measures and practice. Although the SF representatives emphasize that sexual abuse is unacceptable, a conflict between making it visible or invisible emerges and creates a gap between policy and practice. Reproducing a culture of silence around sexual abuse in sports seems advantageously for SFs. Social and organizational factors that can debilitate safe sport measures and facilitate sexual abuse in sport are discussed.
Dietary supplements encompass a large heterogenic group of products with a wide range of ingredients and declared effects used by athletes for a multitude of reasons. The high prevalence of use across all sports and level of competition, combined with the well-documented risks of such products containing prohibited substances have led to several doping cases globally. Despite being a considerable concern and persistent focus of sport organizations and anti-doping agencies, the magnitude of anti-doping rule violations associated with supplement use is not well-known. This study examines 18-years of doping controls of a national anti-doping program to determine the relationship between the presence of prohibited substances in athlete’s doping samples and the use of dietary supplements. In 26% (n = 49) of all the analytical anti-doping rule violation cases in the period 2003–2020 (n = 192), the athlete claimed that a dietary supplement was the source of the prohibited substance causing an adverse analytical finding. Evidence supporting this claim was found in about half of these cases (n = 27, i.e., 14% of all analytical ADRV’s). Stimulants were the most prevalent substance group linked to supplements (n = 24), of which methylhexanamine was associated with 16 cases. High risk products were predominantly multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (n = 20) and fat-burning products (n = 4). Anti-doping organizations should develop strategies on how to assist athletes to assess the need, assess the risk and assess the consequences of using various dietary supplements.
The fight against doping in sport, formally started in 1960 with the constitution of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and culminated in 1999 with the birth of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), commissioned to chair various activities, including the publication of the annual list of prohibited substances and methods for doping. In Europe, as early as 1967, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a resolution to stigmatise the intake of substances foreign to the body for the sole purpose of artificially and unfairly influencing sports performance. In 2002, the Council of Europe adopted an Additional Protocol to the 1989 Strasbourg Convention against Doping to ensure mutual recognition of doping controls and to strengthen the enforcement of the Convention. In Italy, the Law of 14 December 2000 n. 376 “Discipline of the health protection of sports activities and the fight against doping”, defines doping as “the administration or intake of drugs or biologically or pharmacologically active substances and the adoption or submission to medical practices not justified by pathological conditions and suitable to modify the psychophysical or biological conditions of the organism in order to alter the athletic performance of athletes”. The same law regulates the use of drugs or biologically or pharmacologically active substances and update an annual list in agreement with WADA. The article aims to analyse the legislation from a national perspective, offering as complete a view as possible of the current situation.
Socio-cultural research on athlete maltreatment is well documented, with much work focused on examining the spectrum of mistreatment and programmatic/policy responses. While some sport governing bodies have implemented a ‘duty of care’ approach, more definitional analyses of care and caring in competitive youth sport remain absent. This gap served as point of departure for an institutional ethnographic study designed to examine practices of care and caring within the context of youth competitive volleyball through a socio-philosophical lens. Informed by the philosophical frameworks espoused in the Ethics of Care and the Ethics of Need, this paper utilises textual and interview data from the larger study to examine how athletes, coaches, and parents interpret and practice care in relationship to notions of care established in the sport organisation’s governing policies. The results showed how, at the institutional level, notions of care expressed in the sport organisation’s governing documents focused more so on identifying and preventing uncaring practices rather than illuminating what constitutes care and caring, while participants negotiated and interpreted their lived experiences of care as the prioritisation of the needs of athletes over the performance imperative. This was particularly true for coaches who were dually tasked with the care-taking of youth athletes on their teams, whilst also ensuring performance success on the playing field. Thus, coaches are responsible for practices of care in situ that are not fulsomely addressed in governing policies, which presents challenges for coaches when balancing athletes’ needs while also adhering to the aims of competitive sport.
Sexual violence in sport is prevalent and represents a serious public health concern. The social-ecological model for health promotion has been used successfully as a framework to identify individual-to-policy level factors aimed at health promotion or disease prevention. The purpose of this review was to examine both published and non-published (publicly available) SVP efforts conducted within the context of sport and make recommendations for future practice. Grey literature search methods were utilized to conduct a review of publicly available documents. This included (a) a comprehensive Google search using unique search terms that would identify SVP efforts within sport settings and (b) a review of the publicly accessible websites identified in the previous step. Following the grey literature search, and using the SVP practices identified in step one, we conducted a supplementary literature search using scientific publication search engines to identify whether the SVP practices identified in step one had associated peer-reviewed publications. Finally, we assessed various characteristics of each SVP practice including the target population, age range of intended participants, and whether the SVP had associated peer review publications. This led to the identification of 35 unique SVP practices: 25 (71%) SVP practices were assigned to the Intrapersonal level, 6 (17%) were assigned to the Interpersonal level, 9 (26%) were assigned to the Organizational level, 3 (9%) were assigned to the Community, and 2 (6%) were assigned to the Policy level. This review uncovered several important findings including a lack of multi-level SVP practices within sport, a lack of SVP practices that target children, minimal programming aimed at specifically preventing perpetration, the need to elevate policy level action, and a lack of peer-reviewed literature. Ultimately findings suggest that sport organizations ought to prioritize sexual violence prevention using national organizations for guidance.
Sport, as a microcosm of society, is not immune to the abuse of its stakeholders. Attention to abuse in sport has recently become a priority for sport organisations following several high-profile cases of athlete abuse from different sports around the world. Resulting from this increased awareness, many sport organisations have commenced work in the field of athlete safeguarding including the development of policy, educational programmes, reporting pathways, investigation mechanisms and research initiatives. One mechanism adopted by many sport organisations to support their safeguarding efforts is the engagement of survivors of abuse in sport: typically, as guest speakers at conferences or educational events. Unfortunately, many sport organisations do not have the knowledge or trauma-informed expertise to engage survivors safely and effectively; and in doing so, may unintentionally retraumatise the survivor if erroneous methods of engagement are employed. For some survivors, this experience may compound the original harms, and thus it also represents an area of vulnerability for the organising entity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the rationale for partnering with survivors of abuse in sport in safeguarding initiatives and to propose a living conceptual framework to support effective and safe survivor engagement in safeguarding initiatives. We will explore the underpinning scientific background, as well as the ‘why’, and ‘how’ of survivor engagement to inform sport organisations, research scientists, policy-makers, conference organisers, safeguarding officers, sport medicine clinicians and survivors themselves.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been impacting the whole society in every aspect of the daily life, comprising the sport field. Several restrictive strategies have been implemented by governments in an effort to stem the spread of the disease and salvage public health. Such efforts have severely constrained access to non-essential services, leading to the closure of non-essential points of gathering and business and the enforcement of rigorous social distancing and prolonged lockdowns, in addition to masking and stay-at-home mandates. However necessary, there is no denying that such extremely rigorous, and to most people unprecedented, measures have adversely affected the global economy and the daily lives of everyone of us, including professional and amateur athletes. The most important sport events were postponed or cancelled, including the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. But how was the phenomenon of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use impacted and how was the most concerning issue affecting the integrity of sport affected by the pandemic control restrictions?
Studies exploring bullying in sport psychology remain relatively limited despite various media reports of the abusive practice of some professional soccer coaches. This research explores coaches’ views of bullying in professional soccer academies and how it is framed in relation to banter. Five professional soccer coaches were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The methodology and analysis were guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coaches highlighted key components which identify bullying in professional soccer environments, such as intent to harm; frequency of behaviour; and an imbalance of power. Coaches also highlighted different individual and contextual factors which separated bullying from banter. These included individual differences; unintentional behaviour; immaturity; and the masculinity of the soccer culture. These findings provide an important extension to the bullying literature in sport by highlighting coaches’ own perspectives on this concept within the professional soccer context. The findings also illustrate the subtle nuances through which coaches separate bullying from banter. As such, important applied implications are discussed for the development of coach education programmes to raise greater awareness around these concepts as well as the potential consequences of bullying and banter on player welfare in professional soccer.
Only recently has research begun to focus on workplace bullying within organizations outside of traditional white-collar industries, such as professional football. While this is an important development, there remains a lack of understanding around the reporting of bullying in professional sport. In this paper, the authors explore how the professional football workplace shapes perceptions of whistleblowing and unearths individual perceptions around reporting bullying behavior. We used a phenomenological approach to gain rich experiential data from eighteen male professional football players in the UK. Interview data were analyzed in accordance with the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two superordinate themes were identified from the analysis, (a) professional football’s influence on whistleblowing, and (b) the challenges of reporting bullying. These themes highlighted that the unique, institutionalized nature of professional football interacts with participants’ ability to report bullying behavior. The participants’ accounts revealed divergent perceptions around how professional football shapes the degree to which players feel they can report bullying behavior. It was apparent that the authoritarian, often abusive and intimidatory nature of professional football significantly impacts whistleblowing. Our findings demonstrate the importance of workplace context when exploring the reporting of bullying behavior. They also demonstrate the need to address organizational culture and differentiate bullying education programs to alternative workplaces.
Objective: To provide a review and discussion of a range of legal and ethical issues commonly faced by team physicians, with reference to high-profile international integrity crises in sport that have involved doctors. The article also presents some recommendations and guidance for team doctors and sporting organizations. Data Sources: Media reports, legal cases, and journal articles describing recent sporting integrity crises that have involved medical issues and governance reforms which are emerging in response. Main Results: Many of the modern “integrity crises” in sport have a medical aspect (eg, doping cases, catastrophic injuries and illnesses, “Bloodgate” and other “medical cheating,” sexual contact between doctors and athletes, harassment/bullying of doctors, concussion mismanagement, and management of the coronavirus pandemic in sport). A key issue is that while doctors bear ultimate responsibility for any perceived medical negligence, they do not always have ultimate power in decision-making. This is common in the traditional governance structure where the coach/manager “outranks” the doctor and can overrule medical decisions. There can be a blurring of the traditional doctor–patient relationship, especially on tour, and conflicts of interests occur when the needs of the employer/sporting organization differ from the player (patient). Further issues can arise in treating other staff members and players’ family members. Conclusions: Doctors must be aware of range of important legal and ethical issues that arise in the team setting. Medical integrity crises have inspired governance reforms, such as policy development, appointment of chief medical officers, medical staff reporting to integrity departments, and sanctions of teams that breach medical integrity requirements. Sporting organizations must continue to implement and strengthen frameworks reinforcing doctors’ seniority in the medical area.
There is now undeniable evidence of child maltreatment in sport. This has provoked the gradual proliferation of safeguarding research aimed at protecting children from harm in sport. Such research recognises the need for a comprehensive and holistic approach that addresses individual, interpersonal and systemic contributors to child maltreatment in sport. This study sought to provide such an approach by applying the well-researched concept of safety culture to safeguarding children in sport. The aim of this study was to conceptualise safety culture from a child safeguarding in sport perspective (i.e., safeguarding culture). To achieve this, 77 participants from five globally representative organisations took part in 45 Interviews and 7 focus groups. This produced 52 units of qualitative data which were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings suggested that safeguarding culture represents a holistic and integrated approach to prevent child maltreatment which comprises three first-order themes; safety management systems, committed leadership and stakeholder engagement. These themes have dynamic and reciprocal relationships, with their ideal formation and application dependent on internal and external contextual factors. Based on these findings, the Safeguarding Culture in Sport Model is presented before practical implications, limitations and directions for future research are offered. By presenting a new approach and model to safeguarding children in sport, this study represents an important advancement of knowledge around safeguarding children in sport.
In Testing for Athlete Citizenship: Regulating Doping and Sex in Sport, Kathryn E. Henne provides a genealogical account of anti-doping regulation by questioning the meanings we take from sport. Its six chapters (and its appendix) analyze anti-doping and the meanings attached to sport from multiple perspectives by including a plurality of voices. The author includes such voices and perspectives by conducting ethnographic and archival research. Starting from the premise that sport articulates meanings concerning embodiment, physical ability, and human difference, the book examines three topics: (a) the emergence of doping as a transgression in sport; (b) the meanings of sport (grasped through the study of anti-doping regulation); and (c) the relationship between sport regulation and broader social trends in regulation and surveillance.
The aim of this article is to present and critically discuss a game-theory-based argument in favour of the view that sports organizations ought to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. After presenting the argument in detail, I try to show that the argument is not convincing. First, the argument cannot be used to argue in favour of WADA’s (World Anti-Doping Agency) current ban on doping, at least if it rests on the assumption, that doping use is always harmful. However, that in itself may not be a problem for adherents of the argument, and they can and should modify the harm assumption to cover only harmful use of doping. Second, even with this modification, it is argued that the harm assumption is flawed, for example, because it is not obvious why we should accept certain harms in sport but not harm to athletes caused by doping. Third, the argument is also flawed because it entails the non-competitive assumption: if all athletes dope, then no competitive advantages are gained by any athletes assumptions. The non-competitive assumption is challenged in view of the observations that doping can have some non-competitive advantages and is, so to speak, not only a positional good and because doping, due to unequal responsiveness, can give some highly responsive athletes a competitive advantage over less responsive athletes.
With the World Anti-Doping Agency’s International Standard for Education (ISE) coming into effect in 2021, the clean-sport movement is at a pivotal stage. Through this conceptual paper we juxtapose the sector-wide anti-doping education as set out in the ISE on the decision-making process at the individual level. We discuss three critical issues for the clean-sport movement. First, we make the case for doping being a “wicked” problem and outline the possible implications of this for prevention and detection. Second, we consider why we need to address regulative, normative, and cognitive components of clean sport if we are to maximize its legitimacy. Third, we critically expose the fluidity with which clean sport is defined, and the implications of defining clean sport in substance- vs. rule-based terms, which, respectively, lead to theorizing clean sport as “drug-free” vs. “cheating-free” sport. Finally, we consider the role and key components of anti-doping education and how the relevance of certain components may be dependent on the way clean sport is defined. Conceptualizing doping as a sport integrity issue, we move away from the archaic and delimiting view of clean sport as drug-free sport and conclude with recommendations on how to reconcile values-based education, awareness raising, information provision and anti-doping education within the broader scope of integrity, to support informed decision making and personal agency. To connect anti-doping education to individual-level decision making, we recommend a staggered approach in which specific education content is linked to different influences in the decision-making process, to different stages of athlete development, and to different educational goals. Emphasizing and encouraging sensemaking in anti-doping decision making offers a pragmatic approach for anti-doping education. Conceptual clarity and precise mapping of the educational goal, content, and delivery is vital for valid and meaningful evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-doping education.
This article provides a brief overview of the summary report of a research program conducted with the World AntiDoping Agency (WADA) for safeguarding in anti-doping. The research aimed to understand the « psycho-social determinants of [athletes’] doping behaviors » and « athletes[‘] experience[s] during the sanction period, in order to construct a multi-disciplinary intervention program that promotes [athletes’] clean and safe comeback in the sports world and their social-professional integration…to enrich anti-doping prevention campaigns. » The report detailed the findings from qualitative interviews with 11 athletes who were, at the time, under sanction for an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV). In the 11 years since the report’s publication, little has changed. WADA has not yet implemented such a system, though a large investment was made in the anti-doping education and learning (ADeL) platform available online. The monitoring process of anti-doping screenings still does not take into consideration athletes’ psycho-social states, and a 2020 review of 22 Olympic committees found no offering of comprehensive rehabilitation support available to athletes after an ADRV. While only a few national Olympic committees (NOCs) offer resources of any kind, a similar number emphasized that they intentionally and immediately sever all support to an athlete after an ADRV. Any such program will require a certain investment in order to operate and will be restricted geographically where access to trained clinicians is uncommon. Thus, a program like WINDOP has the potential to affect multiple populations heretofore ignored in the pursuit of clean sport. By educating young athletes, monitoring athletes’ psycho-social pressures, and providing a safe path of rehabilitation, we can implement a health-based approach to safeguarding athlete physical and mental welfare through more responsible and effective global doping control.
Socioeconomic differences between countries, including corruption and doping scandals, have increased in the last few decades. The aims of the current investigation were to examine doping prevalence according to world areas and sport groups and its association with socioeconomic factors worldwide. The Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) of 160 countries competing at 2016 Olympics were analyzed between 2013 and 2018. In addition, the relationship between doping prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics, including Human Development Index (HDI), Per Capita Income (PCI) and Corruption Index (CI), was investigated. Africa, Asia, and America were revealed to have a significantly lower doping prevalence than Europe and Oceania when observing the sum and the mean ADRV/10,000 inhabitants (p < 0.01). Strong to moderate correlations were identified between Corruption Index and ADRVs and HDI and ADRVs (p < 0.01). However, the number of Olympic athletes was positively associated with the ADRVs and the HDI (r = 0.663 and 0.424, respectively). In the comparison by sport groups, the Independent Recognized Sports (AIMS) showed significantly higher Adverse Analytical Findings (AAF) and ADRVs (p < 0.01) than Olympic and Recognized International Sports (ARISF). In conclusion, the results of the current study reveal doping prevalence differences between world areas and sport categories, identifying associations with socioeconomic characteristics of each country.
The rules of fair play in sport generally prohibit the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees global antidoping regulations and testing for elite athletes participating in Olympic sports. Efforts to enforce antidoping policies are complicated by the diverse and evolving compounds and strategies employed by athletes to gain a competitive edge. Now between the uniquely proximate 2021 Tokyo and 2022 Beijing Olympic Games, we discuss WADA’s efforts to prevent PED use during the modern Olympic Games. Then, we review the major PED classes with a focus on pathophysiology, complexities of antidoping testing, and relevant toxicities. Providers from diverse practice environments are likely to care for patients using PEDs for a variety of reasons and levels of sport; these providers should be aware of common PED classes and their risks.
Objectives: The phenomenon of doping is rarely researched in Paralympic sport, especially from the coach perspective. This study responds directly to this gap in research by exploring coaches’ doping-related perceptions, knowledge, and opinions of the current anti-doping system in order to inform future interventions specific to disabled elite sport contexts. Method: Eleven coaches from Germany (n = 6) and the UK (n = 5) working across physiological (n = 7) and skill-based (n = 4) sport disciplines at an elite level (Paralympic, n = 10 and World Championship, n = 1) took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using abductive reflexive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2019a). Findings: Four themes were developed to capture the coaches’ perspectives. The first represents coaches’ perception that doping is an issue in Paralympic sport. The second theme shows that risk factors to dope are typically multiple and intertwined, stemming especially from financial incentives and pressure to win. Theme three captures coaches’ opinion of differences in testing and education across countries due to budget, resource, or infrastructure issues. Finally, data showed that coaches prefer to refer responsibility for doping prevention to their national anti-doping organisation, rather than taking on personal responsibility for anti-doping efforts. Conclusions: According to the interviewed coaches, doping has the potential to be a big issue in disabled elite sport. The main risk factors of money and pressure to win (earn prize money or funding/sponsorship) are knitted together and can be additionally impacted (negatively) by a nation’s sporting system. These factors should be addressed by thinking both on an individual level (e.g., support dual careers) and a structural/policy level (e.g., aim to have minimum standards to level the global inconsistent anti-doping systems, including anti-doping education/testing). Furthermore, coaches should take their role and be proactively made aware of their responsibility in doping prevention to coach clean and protect their athletes properly.
With increased media scrutiny, public awareness, and research on the prevalence of maltreatment experiences in sport, sport organizations have faced increased pressures to combat unsafe practices in sport. A consequence has been the emergence of the Safe Sport movement whereby organizations including the International Olympic Committee, Safe Sport International, US Center for SafeSport, Sport Canada, and others, have developed policies, initiatives, and education intended to create safer sport environments for all participants. Most of these policies have been implemented using a top-down approach, driven by government officials and sport leaders. However, if safe sport initiatives are to benefit athletes, consideration and incorporation of athletes’ perspectives in the development and implementation of initiatives are imperative. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine athletes’ perspectives on the challenges and recommendations to advancing safe sport. As part of a large-scale survey of current and retired Canadian National Team Athletes’ experiences of maltreatment, open-ended questions were asked about athletes’ recommendations and considerations for safe sport. Responses to these questions (n = 386) were analyzed using thematic analysis. According to the participants, barriers and challenges to safe sport included emphasizing performance excellence at-all-costs, normalization and complicity of harm, lack of attention to equity, diversity and inclusion, a culture of fear and silence, and a lack of trust in organizations to handle cases of harm. In an effort to advance safe sport, participants recommended prioritizing holistic athlete development, improving and strengthening accountability measures, implementing an independent 3rd party for disclosure, reporting and support, increased attention to equity, diversity and inclusion, stakeholder education, prohibition of sexual relations between athletes and those in positions of power and authority, and adoption of a broader perspective of harms and perpetrators. Findings are interpreted and critiqued in light of previous literature and recommendations for future research and practice are suggested.